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Complete Analysis of NCERTs on History Class 6th to gth
Class 6th Chapter 7: New questions and Ideda
The story of Buddha .Siddharta Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, was born a kshatriya in the Sakya gana in the 6thcentury BCE in Kapilvastu in Nepal. He was a young man when he left the comfort of his home and wandered in search of true knowledge, meditating and meeting famous thinkers.
va tu ini NEPAL Shravast INDIA Kushinagar o Kesaria Uttar Pradesh Vaishali He finally settled under a peepal tree in Bodh nath Varanasi Bihar Nalanda dGaya, and vowed to meditate until ajgi he achieved enlightenment. Bodhga .He preached his first sermon at Sarnath, near Varanasi, and then spent his life travelling on foot and preaching his Dharma to the common people. He died at Kusinara.
Gautam Buddha taught the people that life is full of suffering which is caused by our cravings and desires. He describes human greed as tanha(thirst) or the thirst to have more, and teaches moderation to overcome this greec. He taught people to be kind to other humans and animals, and he believed that the result of our good and bad actions affect us in our current and future lives. He preached his Dharma in Prakrit which was the language of ordinary people
Upanishad Many other thinkers emerged during the time of the Buddha. They started thinking about the things beyond the earth or the known world, and developed the concept of atman or the human soul which is connected to the brahmand or the universal soul. Many such ideas were recorded in the Upanishads, literally meaning 'approaching and sitting near. The Upanishads were the later Vedic texts. Upanishads had stories of thinkers who were mostly men such as brahmins and rajas. And occasionally, women thinkers such as Gargi also came up. Poor people were rarely allowed to study the Upanishads. But there was the exception of Satyakama Jabala, named after his mother Jabali who was a slave. .He was accepted as a disciple by a brahmin named Gautama, and he became a very famous thinker and writer Shankaracharya developed the modern concepts of the Upanishads
Jainism .The most famous of the Jaina thinkers was Vardhama Mahavir, the 24th tirthankar of the Jains. 2 He was a Lichchhavi prince born in Vaishali in the Vaji sangha, and at the age of thirty he left his home in search of enlightenment. He followed a basic rule that men and women who want true knowledge should leave their homes and society ushinagar OVaishali .He practised very strict rules of ahimsa, and said that all beings plants and animals - have the right to live. nath Ordinary people could understand his teachings easily because he preached in Prakrit. Bihar Nalanda ajgir
.Followers of Mahavira came to be known as Jains and lead very simple lives, begging for food. They had to be honest, observe celibacy, were not allowed to steal, and men had to give up their clothes too. Following these rules was very difficult. But many people left their homes to follow this new religion, while many others supported the Jain monks and nuns by giving them food and clothes .Jainism slowly spread throughout the country. At first the teachings of Mahavira were transmitted orally, and written down much later in Vallabhi, Gujarat in 500 AD.
The Sangha Both Mahavira and Buddha believed that only those who left their homes could attain true knowledge. And they formed sanghas or groups of those who left their homes The rules for Buddhist sanghas were written down in the Vinaya Pitaka. All men could join the sanghas, but children had to take permission from their parents. Also, slaves had to be permitted by their owners and women by their husbands. Even debtors had to take permissions from their creditors, and the royal workers from the king. Men and women in the sanghas led simple lives, meditated, and begged for food. So they were also called bhikkus (beggars) and bhikkunis. They taught others, helped one another, and had meetings to settle quarrels within the sangha. People from all parts of society, including brahmins, kshatriyas, vaishyas, and shudras joined those sanghas. Many also wrote down the teachings of the Buddha, while others composed beautiful poems.
Monasteries All Buddhist and Jain monks went from place to place spreading their religion, but during the rainy season they stayed in one place for a few months. Their supporters built shelters for them in gardens, and many monks lived in natural caves. Later, many monks and nuns realised that they needed permanent shelters and so monasteries known as viharas were built out of either rock or wood. The land on which a vihara was built was usually donated by a rich landlord or a king. The local people came with clothes, food, and other gifts to learn from the monks.
Class 6th Chapter 8: Ashoka, The Emperor who gave up War
A very big kingdom- an Empire The Mauryan empire was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 320 BCE, under the aegis ofChanakya (also known as Kautilya and the author of Arthashastra, India's greatest book on public administration) .Chandragupta defeated the Nanda king Dhanananda and then unified the Indian sub- continent into a single empire. MAURYA DYNASTY 265 BCE KAPILVASTU Mathurag Petala PATLIPUTRA Barobar Caves Bodh Gay VANGA Ujiain MAGADHA N DI A Tamraliptig BHOJAKAS .He was succeeded by his son Bindusara, and after Bindusara came one of the greatest kings to rule India, Ashoka the Great. BAY O F BENGAL PITINKAS Kopasi ARABIAN SEA Mauryan Dynasty PULINDAS SATHYA PUTRA O Captal of Maghadha Majpr Ctes Budhist Stes Curment Country ANDHRA States KERALAPUT
Smaller towns and villages were populated by farmers, traders, and herdsmen, and in MAURYA DYNASTY 265 BCE GANDHARA Taxila the forest regions, tribes lived on hunting and gathering SINDHU NDUS) People across the empire spoke different languages, wore different clothes, and ate different kinds of food KAPILV Pahala Mathura Samata Barabar Cavertn Bodh Gayp ANGA PATLIPUTRA Ujjain MAGADHA I N D IA Tamialipti There were many cities in his empire, including the capital Pataliputra (modern- day Patna), Ujjain, Taxila, Kandahar, etc. Taxila was on the north-western border of the empire, while Ujjain was ap BHOJAKAS Toshali BA Y O F BENGA L PITINKAS Kopasi KA ARABIAN ANDHRA SEA Mauryan Dynasty the gateway from the south to the north. These were highly developed cities, Captal of Maghadha Major Cities SATHYA PUTRA and merchants and government Budhistsees Current Country officials lived there. ANDHRA States KERALAPUT radhapura
Ruling the Empire axila SINDHU INDUS) alitapatna Mathura Pitala Sam ti , ATLIPUTRA UJA NL/ / Barabar CavesABodh Gaya,VANGA Uijain MAGADHA Tamraliptig Namadel NDI A BHOJAKAS Tos hali BAY PITINKAS Kopasi The area around Pataliputra was directly under the rule of the emperor, and officials were appointed to collect taxes from merchants, farmers, and herdsmen in the towns and villages Officials were paid salaries and their job was to see to it that the laws of the state are followed. Messengers and spies always kept a watch on those officials, and everyone was ultimately under the watchful eye of the emperor
.Other major cities were called provinces, and they were administered by governors who were mostly members of the royal family MAURYA DYNAST 265 BCE Taola Mauryans also controlled the trade routes between all these cities, and taxes and tributes were collected regularly KAPIL Pitala. Mathurag According to the Arthashastra, the north west was famous for blankets, and the south for gold and gems. These resources might also have been collected as tributes. PATLIPUTRA VANGA Barabar CaverBodh Gaya MAGADHA JAINI Ujain N DIATamaipele Toshal BAY O F BENGAL PITINKAS Kopasi KAL ARABIAN SEA .Although forests were more or less independent, they had to pay tributes in the form of elephants, honey, timber, and wax. Mauryan Dynasty PULINDAS SATHYA PUTRA O Captal of Maghadha Major Cties ABudhiat Stes Current Country CHOLA KERALAPUT
Ashoka's war in Kalinga Ashoka declared war against Kalinga (modern-day coastal Orissa). But the aftermath was so horrifying that Ashoka decided to give up fighting. Kaling Bombay tdan Ashoka tried to spread his message among his people through inscriptions written in Prakrit, using the Brahmi script. .He is the only king who gave up conquest after winning a war.
Ashoka's dhamma (way of life) did not involve any worship to god or sacrifices, and he thought that his duty towards his subjects was like that of a father towards his son. There were many challenges in his empire, such as people followed different religions, animals were sacrificed, slaves and servants were ill-treated, there were quarrels between families and neighbours, and Ashoka worked hard to manage them He appointed officials called Dhamma Mahamatta who travelled and spread Ashoka's dhamma, and sent messengers to different countries such as Egypt, Sri Lanka, Syria, and Greece to spread his dhamma. Ashoka also got his message inscribed on rocks and pillars, out of which his 13 rock edicts are the most famous.