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Complete Analysis of NCERTs on History Class 6th to 8th
Class 6th Chapter 5: What Books and Burials tell Us
Oldest Books in World The Vedas (meaning 'knowledge in Sanskrit) are the oldest scriptures of India. They are written in Sanskrit that is different from the Sanskrit used today. They are considered to be 'apuruseya', which means 'superhuman'. They are believed to be composed by sages after they had strong religious experiences The Vedas are called the sruti ('what is heard') literature, because their verses or hymns were taught by priests to students who were then made to recite and memorise them
The Vedas were written down many centuries after their composition and printed even later than that. Rig-Veda Sama-Veda There are four Vedas: Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, and Atharvaveda. Rigveda is the oldest Veda, written some 3500 years ago. It contains thousands of hymns known as sukta (well-said) that are in praise of gods and goddesses. And some of those hymns are written as dialogues. Atharva-Veda Yajur-Veda Men contributed more to the composition and learning of these hymns than women did.
Cattle, horses and Chariots There are prayers in the Rigveda to bless cattle and horses that were used in battles, and for good health of children, especially boys. .Battles were fought to capture land, people, and water bodies such as lakes and rivers. Most of that wealth was kept by the leaders, some of it was distributed among the priests and the people, and the rest was used to perform yajnas (sacrifices) in which offerings of ghee, grain, even animals were made to please gods and goddesses. .It was mostly men who participated in wars. There were no armies as such, but assemblies where people met and discussed issues of war and peace and chose leaders based on their skills.
People are named on the basis of their work, the language they speak, the place they belong to, their family and community, etc. Eurasia .Based on the work people did, there were two main g in the past: Brahmins (priests) and Rajas (kings). The words Jana or Vish were used to describe a communit of people. For example Puru jana or vish, Bharata jana or vish, Yadu jana or vish, etc. Local Inhabitants TRIBES The Aryas (noble, precious, and not ordinary) were people who composed hymns and were generally thought of as spiritual heroes or warriors. KATA Sapta Saindhav The Dasas or Dasyus (at first it meant 'enemy', but later the meaning changed to 'slave and even 'servant of god') were taken as slaves after wars. They spoke different languages and they did not perform sacrifices.
Megalithic builders in South A megalith is a large stone or stones used to make a big structure or monument. The process of erecting megaliths began around 3000 years ago throughout the Deccarn Plateau, the south of India, the area of the north-east, and Kashmir. These structures are made of large stones arranged in an interlocking system and without using mortar or concrete. They were used to mark burial sites.
Megaliths were found on the surface and underground The dead were buried in those megaliths, along with various things such as pots (known as black and red ware), tools and weapons made of iron, gold ornaments, skeletons of horses, conch shells, etc. And different things were buried with people of different ranks or status. Sometime megaliths had more than one skeleton, indicating that people and animals close to dead people might also have been buried in the same place.
Inamgaon EARLY VILLAGES .Inamgaon is the post-Harappan archaeological site in Maharashtra, on the bank of river Ghod. People lived there between 3600 and 2700 years ago. Himalayas Ind Excavations show that the Malwa Culture and Early and Late Jorwe, and a Deccarn Chalcolithic Culture existed there at different times. Ganges Narmada Mahana INAMGA Kaver Many burials were found here, where bodies were laid out straight with their heads towards the north, and with vessel:s containing food and water put near them.
Archaeologists believe that most people might have been farmers, because traces of seeds and grains such as wheat, barley, rice, pulses, millets, peas, and sesame, and remains of fruits such as berries, amla, jamun, and dates were found. .Bones of different birds and animals such as buffaloes, goats, sheep, dogs horses, asses, pigs, deer, spotted deer, blackbucks, antelopes, hares mongooses, crocodiles, turtles, crabs, and fish were also found there.