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Complete Analysis of NCERTs on History Class 6th to gth
Class 6th Chapter 2: On the Trail of the Earliest People
The earliest people: Why are they on move? Hunter-gatherers hunted animals, caught fishes and birds, and collected fruits, roots, nuts, seeds, leaves, stalks and eggs. Hunting was not easy work, because many animals are faster and stronger than humans. So good hunters had to be alert, quick, and intelligent. Gatherers had to know which plants are edible (safe to eat) and the seasons in which specific fruits ripen. There were four major reasons for hunter gatherers to live nomadic lives: 1. When resources in one area are finished, people have 2. 3. 4. to move to another place. Animals move from place to place in search of food and water, so their hunter-gatherers had to move also. Because different fruits grow in different places in different seasons, people travelled to find them. And because water is also very important, people moved when nearby lakes or rivers dried up. .
How do we know about these people? Archaeologists have found very old tools made of wood, stone, and bone. They were made and used by hunter-gatherers, and we can learn about their lives by studying these tools. They used tools to cut meat and bones to scrape bark from trees and skins from animals, and to chop fruits and roots. Sometimes, stones or bones were also fixed to wooden handles and used as weapons for hunting. Wood was also used as firewood and to build huts and houses.
Choosing a place to leave Most of them lived near sources of water such as rivers, lakes, etc. They mostly settled in places where a lot of stones were available to make tools. Such sites are known as factory sites. We know those places were factory sites, because we found many extra stones and chips there that people threw away when t were making their tools. .If people lived in a factory site for a long time, we call that place a habitation-cum- factory site. Burza Some important Archacological Sites Mehrga Chira Koldihwa Daojali Hading BIRM BETKA) Mahagara Kolkata* amm f Bengal eolithic Sites ithic Site alithic Sibes y Village rn Cities
Making stone tools The earliest technique is called stone-on-stone, where a large stone was used as a hammer to hit a smaller stone called the core. The core was the stone that was used to create the tool. And it was flaked till it had the shape of the tool. The second technique is called pressure flaking, in which the core is placed on a firm surface. Then, a piece of bone or stone tied to a wooden handle is used to flake the core and make the tool.
Burza Some Important Archacological sites Mehrgarh Chira Koldihwa Daojali Hading Kolkata* Mumbai Inarngaom Bay of Bengal HUNSGI Arabian Sea RNOOL CAVES Paiyampl Palacolithic Sites Seolithic Sites legal ithic Sites Early Village on R Adidunalur Modern Cities Lakshadveep
A changing Environment Some big changes took place 12,000 years ago, and the climate of the Earth started getting warmer. This led to the development of grasslands, which in turn led to the increase in the population of deer, sheep, goats, antelopes, etc. .So people of that time also started living in these areas. Slowly, the concept of herding (keeping for milk eggs, meat, etc.) these animals developed. Fishing also became very com mon. During this time, grain-bearing plants such as wheat, rice, barley, etc., also started growing. Women and children collected these grains, and after some more time, people started cultivating these grains (use for farming).
2 million years ago 12000 years ago 0000 years ag Palaeolithic age Mesolithic age Neolithic age
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