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Complete Analysis of NCERTs on History Class 6th to gth
Class 6th Chapter 10: Traders, Kings and Pilgrims
How to find out about trade and traders Traders bought things from one place and then sold them at other places South India was famous from India to Europe for gold, precious gems, and spices, especially pepper Pepper was so valuable that it was called 'black gold in the Roman Empire. .Traders sent these products from India to Rome either by ships or caravans, and the trade was very prosperous. Many Roman gold coins are found in India, especially at ancient ports. Traders travelling to and from India sailed along the coasts of countries. But in monsoons, they used the monsoon winds to travel faster, directly crossing the Arabian Sea or the Bay of Bengal.
Reme EUROPE Black Se Athens Cone tartinople Mediterranean Oceanm Turpan Gobi Desert Samarkand Bukara pesa ter huang Antoch Merv Badtra Xran Hotan tye Baghdad PERSIA CHINA EGYPTCE MuscatBabancon Caautta Bernie ARABIA u Guangzhou Barygaza INDIA KansArabian Sea Bay of Bengal Muziris Mogadshu SOMALIA Indian Ocean Mombasa Indo-Roman Trade
New Kingdoms along the Coasts .In southern India, the areas around the Kaveri river are the most fertile. And the kings and chiefs who controlled those fertile valleys South India SANGAM PERIOD and coasts became very rich and powerful. KONGUNAD EZHN CHOL Kudanad Muchirit CHERA Sangam poems mention the muvendar, the three chiefs, referring to the heads of the three powerful kingdoms of the south: the Cholas, the Cheras, and the Pandyas. CHERA Madurai PANDYA AY Kuttan .Each kingdom had two centres, one inland and one coastal. For example, the coastal centre of the Cholas was Puhar (or Kaveripattinam), and that of the Pandyas was Madurai Venad Nanjina INDIAN OCEAN
They did not take regular taxes but demanded gifts from their people. And they also frequently went on military expeditions (battles and wars) to collect tributes from neighbouring areas and kingdoms. .They kept some wealth for themselves and distributed the rest to their supporters, family, and soldiers .They also showered poets with gold, gems, chariots, horses, elepharn ts, and fine clothes. .Around 200 years after the muvendar, the Satvahanas came into power. Their greatest ruler was Gautamiputra Satkarni, and we know about him through inscriptions (writings in stone) made by his mother Gautami Bala. .He and the other Satvahana rulers were known as Lords of Dakshinapatta (the southern strip) which later came to include all of South India. Saketa Ujain Pataliputra WESTERN Vidisa SATRAPS Kundina Champa Pratishthana Baryga a Punee SATAVAHANA EMPIRE Amaravati PANDYAN CHOLAS AMRAPARN
The Story of the Silk Route THE SILK ROAD 300 B.C A.D. 100 Aral Sea o Trading center Black Sea AKucha Phasis Pot' pezus iTrabzon Turpan) Weli Dunh Ancyra Buxorol Bukhara Yanjing Tash rkand Taklfimakan Tauris (Tabria) Shan aAltun Minfeng) Tarsus tabana Alexandria UNS H A N Mediterranean Babylon Q Susa qlspahan Charax(Far Persepolis Plateau of Tibet Alexaridria Shu Petra Aelana Memphis Indrarastha Afghan Persian maPadaliut Gulf Gerrha ed aliputra (Patna Minzhong Qift Pattala Aswan) Syene Tamralipti Kushan Empire South China Sea re shown Arabian Sea Bay of
The Spread of Buddhism -New form of Buddhism Mahayana .Bodhisattvas Famous Kushan ruler Kanishka Ashvaghosha, court poet > Buddhacharita
MONGOLIA JAFAN KOREA AFGHANISTAN APAN CHINA YELLOW SEA TIRET EAST CHINA SEA PAKISTAN NEPAL BHUTAN BANGLADESH INDIA BURMA LAOS PACIIC OCEAN SOUTH CHINA SEA BAY of BENGA THAILAND ARABIAN SEA CAMBODIA Spread of Buddhism VIETNAM SRI LANKA ALAYSIA INEONESIA INDIAN OCEAN
The quest of the pilgrims Fa hein Xuan Zang The Chinese pilgrims were mainly interested in exploring about Buddha and Buddhism. Hence, they came to India.
The beginning of Bhakti This was the result of people's struggle to free the religion from control of the priests. A person was free to choose his ways and means to worship a god. Pure devotion to a deity was most important aspect Any object could be used as a symbol of the god. The Bhakti movement gave freedom of choice to ordinary people. They could worship any god by any method they wished. There was no need for elaborate rituals. The temple was no longer the only place of worship. Easier rules attracted people to Bhakti.
Class 6th Chapter 11: New Empire and Kingdoms
Samundragupta's Prashasti a praised Samudragupta as a poet, a greatwarrior, an erudite scholar, and aphilanthropist; he is also often mentioned as being equal to gods. In the pras hasti, Harisena has described four kinds of rulers and Samudragupta's policies towards them 1. Nine Aryavrata rulers who were Gupta Empire I-Magadha DU KUSH HINDU Capital city = Tributaries & Vassal AYA S MathuraAyodhya Desert Prayaga Pataliputr defeated, their empires destroyed, and their lands included in Samudragupta's empire. Decean Plateau 2. Twelve rulers in the Dakshinpatta who were defeated and then allowed to rule as vassals. I1 Bay of Bengal 500 miles 3. Rulers of Assam, coastal Bengal, Nepal and and a few gana sanghas who were forced to pay tribute, follow orders and attend Samudragupta's court. OCEAN 4. The descendants of the Kushanas, the Shakas, and the rulers of Sri Lanka surrendered and made marital alliances with the Guptas
Harshvardhan and the Harshacharita HARSHAVARDHANA EMPIRE 606 CE-647 CE .The year 600 CE saw the rise of emperor Harshavardhana whose biogra phy the Harshacharitawas written in Sanskrit by his courtesan Banbhatta. .His genealogy, the story of his life, and the accounts of the Chinese traveller Xuan Zang are mentioned in the Harshacharita. Harsha became the king of Thanesar after his father and elder brother died. His brother-in- law was the ruler of Kanauj and was killed by the ruler of Bengal. Harsha took over Kanauj and then avenged his brother-in-law's death by taking over Bengal. He conquered both Magadha and Bengal, but his expedition in the Deccan was stopped by the Chalukyan Emperor Pulakesin II INDHU STHANVISVARA KANNA Patliputra MAGAD Bodh Gaya eUjain VALABH KAS Arabian Sea SathyaPurrae Cauve Curre Bour CHoL Copyright o20 Update IN DIAN OCEAN
How were these kingdoms administered? .Land revenue was an important source of income for the kings, and a village was the basic unit of administration Government posts were hereditary. For example, Harisena was a maha-danda-nayaka, or Chief Judicial Officer, just like his father was. Many a time, one person held many posts. For example, the poet Harisena was also a kumar-amatya (an important minister) and a sangha-vigrahika (Minister of War and Peace) Important men such as the sreshti (Chief Banker or Merchant), the sarthavaha (Leader of Merchant Caravans), prathama-kulika (Chief Craftsman), and the head of the kayashthas (scribes) had a say in the important matters of the state.
A new kind of army The kings maintained well- organised armies including infantries and cavalries with elephants and chariots. But later, military leaders came to power, and they supplied the kings with armies in times of war. These leaders were known as samantas and instead of salaries they were given la d grants (permission to collect tax from some parts of the kingdom) The land revenue was used to maintain soldiers and horses and to provide equipment to the army. .And whenever a ruler became weak the samantas claimed independence from him
.The Pallava inscriptions mention assemblies known as sabhas consisting of brahmin land owners. These assemblies functioned through sub- committees that looked after irrigation, agriculture, roads and temples. An Ur was a village assembly in those villages where land owners were not brahmins. .A nagaram was an organisation of merchants.
The Iron Pillar . The Iron Pillar in Mehrauli, Delhi is made of iron, is 7.2 m high, weighs 3 tones, and was made around 1500 years ago. An inscription on the pillar tells us about its maker, a king called Chandra, probably from the Gupta dynasty .The most fascinating thing about this iron pillar is that even though it is 1500 year old, it hasn't rusted at all.
Stupa literally means a mound. Stupas can have different shapes, but their basic features are all the same Building in brick and stone: Stupa There is small box placed in the centre of the stupa which generally contains the ashes, remains, or items used by Lord Buddha or some great monk. This box is known as a relic casket and is it buried inside the stupa. A layer of mud bricks or dried bricks is added on top of the box, and the dome structure was then covered with slabs of carved stone. A path known as the pradyakshina patha was laid around the stupa, and a railing was built around it. Devotees used to circle the stupa to offer their respects, and they also built small stupas out of mud as offerings to the large stupas. Amravati and Sanchi have some of the most amazing stupas in all of the Indian sub-continent.
Elevation orana Torana Arched gateway) Ciecular raiing)
Building in brick and stone: Temples .Caves were either natural or made artificially by hollowing out a piece of earth. And they were decorated with elaborate sculptures, carvings and paintings. Kalasa Amalaka Sikhara Mandapa Temples were usually dedicated to Vishnu, Shiva, and Durga, and the most important part of the temple was the garbhagriha, the womb-chamber .The idol or image of the deity was placed in the garbhagriha, and the priests and devotees worshipped there .A shikhara or a tower was built over the garbhagriha to mark it as a sacred place .A mandapa or an assembly hall was also built in some temples. Ardhamandapa GarbhagriyaN
Shore Temple, Mahabalipuram Pallav Architecture
How were Stupas and temples built? Firstly, good quality stone was found, quarried and transported to the construction site. Next, the rough stones were polished and carved into pillars, panels, f loors, and ceilings, and then arranged to make the final structure Kings spent money from their treasury to pay skilled craftspeople who built those beautiful, long- lasting structures. .The gifts brought by devotees were also sometimes used to decorate the caves and temples Many people, such as merchants, farmers, garland- makers, perfumers, smiths, and hundreds others donated in cash or kind, and their names can be seen inscribed on the structures.
Painting Ajanta caves are artificial (human- made) caves created by hollowing out mountains and then decorating them on the inside with paintings; Buddhist monks lived there. As the caves are dark, the paintings might have been done under fire torches from plants and minerals, and date back 1500 years. We can see the skillful work of those painters in the Ajanta paintings, but their names are still unknown.
Puranas Puranas literally mean old, and they contain stories about gods and goddesses such as Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma, and Durga. The Puranas talk about the origin of the world and about the ways to worship. They were recited by priests and people listened to them. .The Puranas were written in simple Sanskrit and were meant to be heard by everyone including women and shudras (who weren't allowed to read the Vedas).
.Epics There are two major epics in Indian history the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. .The Mahabharata is about the war between the Kauravas and the Pandavas for the throne of the Kurus at their capital Hastinapur The Mahabharata was written 1500 year ago and both the Mahabharata and the Puranas werecompiled by sage Vyas. The Bhagavad Gita is also a part of the Mahabharata. The Ramayana is about Ram, the prince of Kosala, who went to exile with his wife, Sita andbrother, Laxman. Sita is abducted by R aavan, the king of Lanka and rescued by Ram and his devotees. The Ramayana was written by sage Valmiki.