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Complete Analysis of NCERTs on History Class 6th to gth
Class 6th Chapter 6: Kingdoms, Kings and early Republic
Mahajanapadas Rajas who performed the Ashwamedha sacrif ice were now known as rajas of janapadas. Many janapada sites have been excavated such as Purana Qila in Delhi, Hastinapur near Meerut, and Atranjikheera near Etah andhara uru oja Sa Surasena Koliya Panchala Malla Kosala Magadha Matsya Archaeologists found that the people there lived in huts, kept cattle and other animals, and also grew a variety of crops such as wheat, rice, barley, pulses, sugarcane, sesa me and mustard. RAng Vamsa SLS xvanga Chedi Avanti They made grey and red earthen pots. A peculiar type of earthen pots, known as the had Painted Grey Ware linear and geometric design.
Around 500 BCE, mahajanapadas rose to power. They were larger and more powerful than janapadas, and fortified cities and huge armies Forts were built to protect people from enemy raids and attacks. And the height and strength of the walls of forts became a symbol of the glory of the kings who built them Building huge walls required huge amounts of money a large supply of resources (money,etc.), and hundreds of men and women labourers. Armies were maintained by each mahajanapada, and their soldiers were paid salaries using punch-marked coins.
Taxes The raja had a lot of work, such as building forts, maintaining armies, etc., and all those big projects needed money, so the rajas collected taxes from their people. The farmers had to pay a bhaga (a share) equal to 1/6th of their farm produce to the king. Craftspeople had to pay tax in kind by working one full day for the emperor each month. 17 Herders paid taxes in the form of animals and animal produce. There were taxes on import and export as well as on hunter-gatherers who had to give a share of their forest produce.
Changes in agriculture Two major changes took place during this time in the field of agriculture. .The first was the increasing use of the iron ploughshare to turn heavy and clayey soil so that more crops can be produced. The second was transplanting paddy, where instead of scattering the seeds, saplings we grown and then planted in the fields. This process required a lot of hard work, so slave men and women known as daasas and daasis and bonded labourers called kammakaras were employed to wo rk in the fields. ploughshaft ploughshare
Closer Look to Magadh .Drained by the Ganges and the Son rivers, Magadha became the most powerful mahajanapada in ancient India. .Magadha was important for transport and trade, and its fertile regions made agriculture prosper Gandhara uru oja Sa Surasena Koliya Panchala Malla Va Parts of Magadha were forested and elephants from there were trained to fight for the army. Kosala Magadha Matsya Anga amsa Forests also provided wood, and the iron mines in the region provided the metal to make strong weapons and tools anga Chedi Avanti
Magadha had many powerful rulers such as Bimbisara and Ajatsatru of the Haryanka dynasty, and Mahapadma Nanda of the Nanda dynasty Rajagriha was the capital of Magadha for many years, and later the capital was moved to Pataliputra. .In around 300BCE, Alexander had conquered half of the known world and wanted to conquer India next. But stories of the glorious army of Magadha instilled fear in his armies who were already exhausted, so he returned to Europe. Shravasti Vaishali Varanas Pataliputra Rajagriha Vidisha Ujjain
A closer look to Vajji .Vajji was a republican mahajanapada in mordern Bihar. Its capital was Vaishali and it was run by ganas or sanghas (assemblies) There were hundreds of members in a sangha, and each was known as a raja. All those members got together to decide the important matters of the state. Woman and slaves were not allowed to be part of these assemblies. Buddha and Mahavira were both part of ganas or sanghas, and Buddhist books specifica ly talkabout the working of sanghas. andhara Kuru oja Sakya Surasena P nchala Malla Kosala Magadha Matsya Ang Vamsa Chedi Many powerful rajas tried but failed to conquer the sanghas, and although the Guptas did conquer them, it only happened much later. Avanti
.Other major cities were called provinces, and they were administered by governors who were mostly members of the royal family MAURYA DYNAST 265 BCE Taola Mauryans also controlled the trade routes between all these cities, and taxes and tributes were collected regularly KAPIL Pitala. Mathurag According to the Arthashastra, the north west was famous for blankets, and the south for gold and gems. These resources might also have been collected as tributes. PATLIPUTRA VANGA Barabar CaverBodh Gaya MAGADHA JAINI Ujain N DIATamaipele Toshal BAY O F BENGAL PITINKAS Kopasi KAL ARABIAN SEA .Although forests were more or less independent, they had to pay tributes in the form of elephants, honey, timber, and wax. Mauryan Dynasty PULINDAS SATHYA PUTRA O Captal of Maghadha Major Cties ABudhiat Stes Current Country CHOLA KERALAPUT