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Complete Analysis of NCERTs on History Class 6th to gth
Class 6th Chapter 12: Buildings, Paintings and books
The Iron Pillar . The Iron Pillar in Mehrauli, Delhi is made of iron, is 7.2 m high, weighs 3 tones, and was made around 1500 years ago. An inscription on the pillar tells us about its maker, a king called Chandra, probably from the Gupta dynasty .The most fascinating thing about this iron pillar is that even though it is 1500 year old, it hasn't rusted at all.
Stupa literally means a mound. Stupas can have different shapes, but their basic features are all the same Building in brick and stone: Stupa There is small box placed in the centre of the stupa which generally contains the ashes, remains, or items used by Lord Buddha or some great monk. This box is known as a relic casket and is it buried inside the stupa. A layer of mud bricks or dried bricks is added on top of the box, and the dome structure was then covered with slabs of carved stone. A path known as the pradyakshina patha was laid around the stupa, and a railing was built around it. Devotees used to circle the stupa to offer their respects, and they also built small stupas out of mud as offerings to the large stupas. Amravati and Sanchi have some of the most amazing stupas in all of the Indian sub-continent.
Elevation orana Torana Arched gateway) Ciecular raiing)
Ground Plan Torana Chatravali (Umbrellas) areu Torana Harmika railed pavilion) Anda (Hemispherical dome) Vedika Circular railing) (Lower Torana Arched gateway)
Building in brick and stone: Temples .Caves were either natural or made artificially by hollowing out a piece of earth. And they were decorated with elaborate sculptures, carvings and paintings. Kalasa Amalaka Sikhara Mandapa Temples were usually dedicated to Vishnu, Shiva, and Durga, and the most important part of the temple was the garbhagriha, the womb-chamber .The idol or image of the deity was placed in the garbhagriha, and the priests and devotees worshipped there .A shikhara or a tower was built over the garbhagriha to mark it as a sacred place .A mandapa or an assembly hall was also built in some temples. Ardhamandapa GarbhagriyaN
Shore Temple, Mahabalipuram Pallav Architecture
How were Stupas and temples built? Firstly, good quality stone was found, quarried and transported to the construction site. Next, the rough stones were polished and carved into pillars, panels, f loors, and ceilings, and then arranged to make the final structure Kings spent money from their treasury to pay skilled craftspeople who built those beautiful, long- lasting structures. .The gifts brought by devotees were also sometimes used to decorate the caves and temples Many people, such as merchants, farmers, garland- makers, perfumers, smiths, and hundreds others donated in cash or kind, and their names can be seen inscribed on the structures.
Painting Ajanta caves are artificial (human- made) caves created by hollowing out mountains and then decorating them on the inside with paintings; Buddhist monks lived there. As the caves are dark, the paintings might have been done under fire torches from plants and minerals, and date back 1500 years. We can see the skillful work of those painters in the Ajanta paintings, but their names are still unknown.
The world of Books .Epics are grand, long poems about heroic men and women, and they also have stories with gods and goddesses A famous Tamil epic, Silappadikaram, was composed by llango around 1800 years ago, and it's the story of a merchant named Kovalan and his love saga with a courtesan named Madhavi. When he is wrongly accused and put to death by the Pandya king, his loving wife Kannagi takes revenge by destroying the royal city of Madurai. Another Tamilian epic called Mannimekalai was composed by Sa ttanar around 1400 years ago, and it describes the story of the daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi
Puranas Puranas literally mean old, and they contain stories about gods and goddesses such as Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma, and Durga. The Puranas talk about the origin of the world and about the ways to worship. They were recited by priests and people listened to them. .The Puranas were written in simple Sanskrit and were meant to be heard by everyone including women and shudras (who weren't allowed to read the Vedas).
.Epics There are two major epics in Indian history the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. .The Mahabharata is about the war between the Kauravas and the Pandavas for the throne of the Kurus at their capital Hastinapur The Mahabharata was written 1500 year ago and both the Mahabharata and the Puranas werecompiled by sage Vyas. The Bhagavad Gita is also a part of the Mahabharata. The Ramayana is about Ram, the prince of Kosala, who went to exile with his wife, Sita andbrother, Laxman. Sita is abducted by R aavan, the king of Lanka and rescued by Ram and his devotees. The Ramayana was written by sage Valmiki.
.Common people also wrote stories and books, composed poems and songs, danced, andperformed plays .Such local stories were collected and later came to be known as the Jataka and Panchatantra tales .The Jataka stories were inscribed on the railings of major stupas such as the one at Sanchi Aryabhatta was a mathematician and a scientist who wrote the book Aryabhatiyam about 2000 years ago. He correctly explained the Earth's rotation and revolution and the phenomenon of eclipses. He is also credited with the invention of the number zero.
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