Abhishek Srivastava is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
EDITORIAL ANALYSIS FROM HINDU 9th DECEMBER 2017 https://unacade Editorial analysis Crash course on Polity Crash Course on Modern History Crash Course on Ancient History Crash Course on Medieval History . Ncert Class VI History Summary . Delhi Sultanate *Essay writing Abhishek Srivastava
Living in a world of emerging microbial resistance The presence of antibiotic resistance in the environment should worry us Until now, India's fight against antibiotic-resistance was focussed on getting people to cut down on unnecessary antibiotic consumption Having too many antibiotics causes bodily pathogens to resist these miracle drugs. . But, for the first time, the 2017 National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance talks about limiting antibiotics in effluent being dumped by drug makers into the environment. This is because when these drugs taint soil and water, the scores of microbes that live there grow drug-resistant. .But only a tiny proportion of these environmental microbes trigger disease in humans So why is resistance among them a problem?
Environment-pathogen link The answer lies in the intimacy shared between environmental bacteria and human pathogens . Typically, a pathogen, say Klebsiella pneumoniae ( K. pneumoniae), that causes pneumonia, can take two routes to antibiotic resistance. - The first is for its own genes to mutate spontaneously to help fight the drug - The second route, a shortcut known as horizontal gene transfer, is for the bug to borrow resistance genes from its neighbours. genes from the environment through this shortcut. fighting gram-negative bacteria such as K. pneumoniae . Scientists believe that many human pathogens today picked up their resistance . Ciprofloxacin was the most effective among the quinolone class of antibiotics in But cipro also had another ace up its sleeve. Because bacteria would need multiple resistance mutations to fight cipro, and because such multiple mutations are rare, scientists thought resistance was unlikely.
Yet, within a decade, ciprofloxacin resistance had spread globally. . Eventually, scientists learnt that bacteria such as K. pneumoniae had been helped along by horizontal gene transfer. So, soil and water species have a stockpile of resistance genes, which jump to pathogens now and then The antibiotic age . In fact, phylogenetic studies suggest that the earliest antibiotic-resistance genes in nature are millions of years old. But when humans starting manufacturing antibiotics in the 1950s, a dramatic shift occurred. Large doses of these drugs seeped into the environment through poultry and human excreta, and waste water from drug makers and hospitals. This led to an explosion of resistance genes in soil and water microbes. Water in a pharma effluent treatment plant in Hyderabad had both high levels of ciprofloxacin as well as novel resistance genes, never seen in microbes elsewhere.
. The flow of genes from the environment to humans is a rare event Instead, most transmission happens from one human to another. But the rarity isn't reason to lower our guard -We live in unprecedented times where environmental bacteria, pathogens and antibiotics are mixing like never before This means such rare events are almost inevitable. Once they jump to human bugs, resistance-genes can spread across continents in a few days. The worry is that if India doesn't move quickly, wastewater in pharma clusters could give rise to new genes as dangerous as NDM-1 Once such genes jump to humans, they will, no doubt, blaze their way across the planet. When this happens, it will be more than a public relations disaster for India. . .It will be a death sentence for Indians as well as thousands across the globe.
A stab in the heart of a peace process Donald Trump's recognition of Jerusalem has dealt a body blow to Palestinian hopes The U.S. has largely favoured Israel throughout the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories and East Jerusalem Beirut Despite this special relationship, previous American Presidents have been wary of recognising Israel's claims over Jerusalem Tel aviv Amman Jerusalem The U.S. Congress passed the Jerusalem Embassy Act, urging the Administration to relocate the U.S Embassy from Tel Aviv to the Holy City Cairo
. American Presidents have deferred the decision endlessly given international public opinion and the political and moral sensitivity of the issue. It is this consensus that U.S. President Donald Trump has now broken by recognising Jerusalem as Israel's capital. Cutting off the oxygen .Mr. Trump forget that Jerusalem is at the very heart of an Israeli-Palestiniarn solution. By endorsing Israel's claims over the city, the American President has driven a knife into that heart. dealt a body blow to the peace process. concession to lsrael, perhaps since the Oslo process, without getting any promises .A President who promised the 'ultimate deal" to resolve the conflict has effectively . This is not diplomacy. Mr. Trump has taken a unilateral decision giving the largest in return . His move will only strengthen the Israeli Right, which is dead opposed to ceding any inch of Jerusalem to a future Palestinian state.
Was never recognised Jerusalem has never been recognised as Israel's capital by the international community In the original UN General Assembly plan to partition Palestine and create independent Jewish and Arab states, Jerusalem was deemed an international city. The Zionists didn't wait for the plan to be implemented by the UN. In 1948, they declared the state of Israel and in the ensuing Arab-lsraeli war, they captured 23% more territories than even what the UN had proposed, including the western half of Jerusalem. - Israel seized East Jerusalem in 1967 from Jordan, and later annexed it. In 1980, the lsraeli Parliament passed a basic law, declaring Jerusalem "complete and united" as its capital. -Sharp Reaction-The UN Security Council (UNSC) declared the draft law "null and void" and urged member countries to withdraw their diplomatic missions from the Holy City.
This is the reason all countries have their embassies in Tel Aviv despite West Jerusalem being Israel's seat of power for decades. American nudges . The only country that can put effective pressure on Israel is the U.S. American Presidents have done that in the past without upsetting the U.S.-Israel alliance. Many agreements have been made in the past that talked about Israel-Palestine issue like Camp David Agreement. But since the collapse of the Second Camp David talks, American Presidents have largely looked away from the issue. Mr. Trump is least interested in finding cues of peace on the Palestinian side and acting upon them by putting pressure on Israel . The U.S. has struck a blow against the hopes of Palestinians. First they lost their city and now are losing even their claims. This will only lead to their despair mounting Mr. Trump's move may be a big shot in the arm for the Israelis, but a final settlement is still afar.
Rights & wrongs The Centre should reconsider its draft Bill on transgender rights . News that the Centre has brushed aside a parliamentary standing committee's report and plans to introduce the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill without changes is a disappointment. The process of recognising the rights of the community and seeking to protect it by legislation gained momentum in 2014 when the Supreme Court gave a landmark verdict in the NALSA case The court recognised the community as a third gender entitled to the same rights and constitutional protection as other citizens - It called for an end to discrimination based on gender against those who do not conform to the gender assigned to them at birth. The court also ruled that transgender persons had a positive right to make decisions about themselves, express themselves and participate in community life.
. Social legislation should not be merely benevolent; -it should be imbued with an approach that extends to the marginalised sections the freedom, dignity and autonomy that other citizens enjoy. . It is up to the government of the day to adopt an inclusive approach towards divergent opinions and come up with the best law possible. lgnoring the opinions of experts and parliamentary committees does not help the process The Centre should revisit its draft and incorporate the inputs of the standing committee and an expert panel that submitted a report in 2014.