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EDITORIAL ANALYSIS FROM HINDU 1th DECEMBER 2017 . https://unacademy.com/user/abhishek6 077 . Editorial analysis . Crash course on Polity . Crash Course on Modern History . Crash Course on Ancient History Crash Course on Medieval History . Ncert Class VI History Summary . Delhi Sultanate . Essay writing Abhishek Srivastava
For clean air, India needs a policy leap The way to curb pollution is to tax carbon. Only then will households look for greener substitutes Air pollution is one of the biggest public concerns in India today. Its implications are many but just two will suffice here. A report of the Lancet Commission on pollution_and health states that around . 19 lakh people die prematurely every year from diseases caused by outdoor and indoor air pollution. A study by the Indian Journal of Pediatrics shows that the lungs of children who grow up in polluted environments like Delhi are 10% smaller compared to the lungs of children who grow up in the U.S. nothing short of a public health emergency.
At the heart of the problem of pollution are carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. About 75% of all greenhouse gas emissions are CO2 emissions produced through burning fossil fuels-oil, coal and natural gas -to generate energy. Since the early 2000s, carbon emissions have increased because of high growth in the Indian economy. . In 2014, India's total carbon emissions were more than three times the levels in 1990, as per World Bank data. This is because of India's heavy dependence on fossil fuels and a dramatically low level of energy efficiency Remodel the energy mix Emissions_can be curbed only if people are persuaded to move away from fossil fuels and adopt greener forms of energy.- Tax carbon A part of the carbon revenue thus generated can be used for a systemic overhaul of the energy mix, . . The Indian economy's energy mix needs to be remodelled through investments in clean renewable sources of eneray like solar. wind.hydro. geothermal and
low-emissions bioenergy, and . by raising the level of energy efficiency through investments in building retrofits, however, a problem with carbon tax, . Economists in the West have argued for a 'tax and dividend' policy according to grid upgrades, and industrial efficiency It's regressive in nature it affects the poor more than the rich. which the revenue thus generated is distributed equally across its citizens and as a result, the poor are more than compensated for the loss, since in absolute amounts the rich pay more carbon tax than the poor. Instead of a cash transfer, the other part of the carbon revenue can be used for an in-kind transfer of o free electricity to the population that contributes less carbon than the economy . average, and o universal travel passes to compensate for the rise in transport costs and to encourage the use of green public transport.
Such a policy justly addresses the widening schism between Bharat, which bears the climate impact burden, and India, which is imposing that burden because of its lifestyle choices Through this Right to Energy programme, . every household in India will have access to electricity, The free entitlement of fuel and electricity for a household works out to 189 kWh per month based on our calculations from the National Sample Survey data. Anything above this limit will be charged in full to control misuse of this policy Travel passes with a pre-loaded balance amount of around Rs. 4,600 per household per annum, which can be used in any mode of public transport private and government alike will be available for every household. upstream. namely, at ports, mine-heads. in fuel and energy since the carbon content is the highest in this category . The level of carbon tax required is Rs. 2,818 per metric tonne of CO2. It will be levied . While the prices of almost all the commodities will rise, the highest rise in price will be
Other benefits This policy not only curbs emissions but also delivers on providing more employment since * the employment elasticity in greener forms of energy is higher than those in fossil fuel-based energy. Higher prices of commodities according to their carbon content will induce households. including the rich to look for greener substitutes. They have the effect of enticing evern the poor to move away from traditional forms of energy consumption because the price of energy will be zero for them (provided they consume less than the cut-off limit) as compared to a shadow positive price in terms of the time used for collection of wood or cow dung cakes. . Availability of free energy also addresses the issue of stealing of electricity._S It's difficult to put a figure on the health benefits that such a policy will entail, but as a rough measure, a significant part of more than 3% of India's GDP currently spent on pollution-induced diseases will surely come down
The power play in peacekeeping Though Indian troops have led the way, the returns in UN power play have been low. The contrast with China is stark Media coverage of peacekeeping operations is an area with many gaps. for example, an incident last week, where at least 15 peacekeepers and five soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) were killed and numerous peacekeepers wounded by armed militants in one of the worst attacks on United Nations personnel. A local Islamist extremist group overran the remote base. Most of the dead and wounded are from Tanzania. Was there any media coverage in India? It would have been a different story had they been troops from the West. In the midst of this, one must focus on China as its grip on UN affairs tightens and it starts deciding policy, to the detriment of India.
China rising Amid the buzz around Beijing taking centre stage in world affairs, the import of China's deployment of its first peacekeeping helicopter unit in the peacekeeping mission in Darfur has been lost sight of. . reluctant entry in peacekeeping, when it sent a small cadre of soldiers to Cambodia in 1992 . became the largest troop contributor among the permanent members of the (UNSC) .China is now the third-largest contributor to the UN's regular budget second-largest conributor to the peacekeeping budget. Beijing's quest for great power status? September 2017 report, the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) says: "China's participation in UN operations offers... a low-cost means of demonstrating their commitment to global stability... and allay(s) fears about its military and economid strength." But is the picture that simple for India in geopolitical power play?
The UN, especially the UNSC, is a blue-blooded political body, notwithstanding its charter of considering all countries as equals. In practice, a nation's voice is in proportion to what it contributes towards the UN, especially funds India's contribution is only 0.737% when compared to China's 7.92% and the US.'s 22%. Troop contributions to peacekeeping do not get their due in UN power politics. . pivotal posts in UN missions have always been with major fund contributors. . China is indeed a part of the picture. Veto power The CSIS report states that China has used its veto only 12 times, . but two were cast where its economic interests were involved, like in Myanmar and Zimbabwe despite these being low on human rights records. . two vetoes were also cast "over concerns over territorial integrity pertaining to Taiwan". China was against sending UN peacekeepers to Guatemala and Macedonia because they had established diplomatic ties with Taiwan.
When this self-serving act is linked with Beijing's other recent coercive actions such . as against Mongolia due to a Dalai Lama visit, and against Japan when it is said to have halted exports of rare minerals following the arrest of a Chinese trawler captain, the increasing front-lining of China in international affairs via the UN has an ominous ring. 2015- China committed a standby force of 8,000 peacekeepers and a permanent police squad for UN operations. 10-year $1 billion China-U.N. peace and development fund and $100 million in military assistance to the African Union. It is no coincidence that Africa is where China has large economic interests. Peacekeeping is said to be a cover for China to test its strengths in overseas deployments. The deployment of a People's Liberation Army Navy submarine off the Africa coast for anti-piracy patrolling is to train its seamen in long-distance operations
In an elite club Wassenaar Arrangement strengthens India's credentials as a responsible nuclear power The Wassenaar Arrangement was founded in 1996, and is clubbed with mechanisms such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and the Australia Group. its stated aim is "to contribute to regional and international security and stability, by promoting transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, thus preventing destabilising accumulations." CHAIR HEAD OF SECRETARIAT
However, over the past couple of years it has become evident that Delhi has to do most of the heavy lifting to gain a seat at various global high tables. The Wassenaar Arrangement membership is also a lesson on the need for quiet diplomacy in sensitive nuclear issues, compared to the botched attempt to gain entry to the NSG last year. While India's efforts at the NSG were stopped by China, which is not a member of the Wassenaar Arrangement, raising the pitch publicly at the time came with costs. It made the task of forging a consensus on membership to the NSG more difficult. And when that attempt failed, it gave the setback the appearance of being significantly more insurmountable. Nonetheless, now that more and more countries are signing on to India's steadily strengthening credentials in the nuclear area, there is hope that a fresh momentum will be imparted to a future bid for the NSG. It will not be easy. The Australia Group, which focusses on biological and chemical weapons, may be easier to crack given that China is not a member. But meanwhile, the Wassenaar Arrangement will embed India deeper in the global non-proliferation architecture and enable access to critical technologies in the defence and space sectors
Such transformative moments have been visible in the past tooduring the initial sitting of the Constituent Assembly almost a decade ago when nearly the entire polity voted for Nepal to become a republic, or when the peace process between the Nepali state and the Maoists was completed, or after the earthquake in 2015 when political parties decided to quickly narrow down their differences on the Constitution in order to work together But they all lapsed into more political wrangling. The Left Alliance now has both the opportunity and the strength to deliver on governance and development As for the NC, the grand old party of Nepal has much to introspect on. It was blindsided by the formation of the Left Alliance and its own ragtag alliance was found to be wanting. It will now have to step up to play its role in opposition
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