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HINDU EDITORIAL ANALYSIS:19th DEC'17 https://unacademy.com/user/abhishek6077 Editorial analysis- Nov & October News Analysis- November & October . Crash course on Polity, Modern, Ancient & Medieval History Ncert Class VI History Summary Delhi Sultanate Essay writing
Speedy, decisive Two crimes ended in death sentences for the principal perpetrators last week 1. 2. one emblematic in the way it sought to uphold caste pride and the other an abominable instance of sexual violence against women. The High Courts of Madras and Kerala would decide later whether to confirm the death penalty, but the trial courts have sent out a significant message 1. 2. that one need not always be cynical about the country's criminal justice system; that there are times when it responds well, and responds quickly, to the cry for justice.
In these cases, 1. one involved the murder of Shankar, a Dalit youth, for marrying Kausalya, who is from an intermediate caste, and incurring her family's wrath. 2. The other related to the rape and murder of a Dalit law student by a migrant worker. Both crimes took place in the first half of 2016. For Indian courts to render a final verdict within two years is unusual, therefore probably deserving of praise. That the Sessions Court in Tirupur and the one in Ernakulam both imposed the maximum punishment speaks of a commitment to rendering justice This is a noteworthy and welcome departure from the uninspiring record of tardy trials and perfunctory orders.
That she testified against her parents as well as the dangerous gangsters hired by her father to commit the crime is a commentary on her fortitude. It is perhaps a sign of the times that both State governments bestowed considerable attention on securing justice in these cases, getting the investigation supervised at a high level and appointing special prosecutors Given the public outcry over the two crimes, any other course would have been unacceptable. In recent years, quick trials and condign punishment have become the order of the day. Besides the 'Nirbhaya' gangrape and murder in Delhi, the Shakti Mills gang rape case in Mumbai and the rape of a passenger by a Delhi taxi driver are significant instances.
However, it is odd and discomfiting that all such cases end in condemning the convicts to death Trial courts appear to be under pressure to be seen as ruthless and unwavering, resulting in their reflexively awarding the death penalty. In these two latest cases the superior courts may well reduce the sentences on a balance of mitigating and aggravating circumstances But one cannot ignore the core message that efficient investigation and speedy trials help foster trust in the justice system.
Hidden figures of Indian science Many of the greatest scientists that independent India has produced are little known, like hidden figures in their own homeland. Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri in cosmology, GN. Ramachandran in protein crystal structures, and . C.K. Majumdar and Dipan Ghosh who extended the quantum Heisenberg spin model. These are household names in the international scientific field, but are little promoted by the Indian scientific establishment, even neglected in graduate teaching.
Why the oversight? This oversight reflects a serious problem for the sciences in India. India has numerous well-funded institutions designed to produce high-quality scientific research, but the resulting research is mostly mediocre. What is worse is that many Indian scientists agree that the relatively small amount of world-clas:s research they produce emerges despite the national scientific establishment, and not because of it. The physicist Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, until recently director of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, is critical about the flaws that he sees: "Our research institutes, despite having far greater resources, were full of clever people who were risk-averse and eased into safe, albeit good, research, but not the ground-breaking work of the earlier, colonial times.
.Local rewards not subject to global competition were low-hanging fruit - these were] temptations too hard to ignore." An Indian citizen who achieved his reputation in the U.S Professor Bhattacharya was recruited to run TIFR because, as C.N.R. Rao, who until recently was head of the Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister, said at the time, "There is really a crisis of leadership in the country... There is a need to get in some fresh blood . .However, the resistance to a U.S.-returned scientist who was from outside the corridors of power ensured that the system remained largely unchanged .The system is run by scientists-turned-bureaucrats, who have absorbed the culture of government. Independent India's project of building a national science establishment led to internal standards of judgment: the scientists in power certify each other's work
Dependent on political patronage for continued funding, these leaders groom loyalists and yes-men rather than cutting-edge researchers (and women are scarce). .In a culture where people tend to get perceived as "smart" or not, labels can stick for life: hard work yields no rewards unless one is already defined as smart. This has led to an insider culture, reproducing privileges rather than promoting excellence. It is the little-recognised lone rangers who usually produce the best work in such a system, and not the research groups that get the major share of resources. . . In the Hollywood film Hidden Figures, we learn the true story of some mathematicians who made crucial contributions to NASA's space satellite programme, but were ignored because they were female and black.
That was in 1960s America, far more patriarchal and racially biased than today. On the other hand, the Indian scientists in question were usually upper-caste Hindu men who experienced no discrimination on account of their identity. But they were not insiders close to political power. India's scientific institutions have been a blind spot in the state's modernisation project. They symbolise reason and are immune to criticism. owing to a conscious decision at the time of independence, research institutions, which house a tiny elite, get most of the funding but universities get very little, says Shobhit Mahajan, a Delhi University physicist. Research and teaching are segregated, the result being that both suffer Roadblocks to innovation For Indian scientists, success has meant becoming a bureaucrat, rather than advancing research.
Somendra Bhattacharjee, a senior physicist at Bhubaneswar's Institute of Physics, lists some of the consequences of this system. First, all the significant work produced in India is theoretical work. "At least in the theoretical sciences, money is not that much of a requirement," he says. "If you have some contacts and can do things at the international level, nobody is going to go after you. That's how many isolated works are getting done." Second, experimental science "is very poor in India". To succeed, experiments require at least two conditions: guarantees of long-term funding and scientists' collaboration with each other. Funding varies with the political climate: there will be money to buy equipment but no certainty that resources will flow for all the years needed to ensure significant results And collaboration is a social process, not an intellectual one. It involves, among other things, physical labour together with others.
But, Mr. Bhattacharjee says, "Working with hands is not encouraged among scientists. The words used in Indian labs are: one needs hands to do experiments, not brains." Lab assistants are the hands, while scientists avoid what they regard as mere manual labour. Third, far from creating a positive influence on society, Indian scientific institutions reflect the existing social make-up and even reinforce it. Bureaucrats no longer active in cutting-edge research regard themselves as capable of judging working scientists, dispensing with principles of peer review. And instead of creating a scientific esprit de corps and contributing to social debates, Indian scientists tend to shun public commentary, unless it is to serve as government spokespersons. Thus claims recycling popular myths can be made by the Prime Minister or by participants at the Indian Science Congress while leaders of the scientific establishment keep mum.
For a safe cyberspace India is one of the key players in the digital and knowledge-based economy, holding more than a 50% share of the world's outsourcing market. Pioneering and technology-inspired programmes such as Aadhaar, MyGov, Government e-Market, DigiLocker, Bharat Net, Startup India, Skill India and Smart Cities are propelling India towards technological competence and transformation India is already the third largest hub for technology-driven startups in the world and its Information and Communications Technology sector is estimated to reach the $225 billion landmark by 2020.
.What is not true, however, is that the poor will get to enjoy many luxuries if only the rich were taxed more and the money was used to write welfare cheques to the poor, thus boosting their purchasing power Instead, when taxes are high, people who help produce the goods that the rich and the middle class enjoy today will have less of an incentive to do their jobs as before. .Workers, for instance, may no longer be attracted towards high-skill jobs when their income from such jobs is taxed at high rates. .Investors too will have lesser reason to put in their money in crucial projects when their profits are taxed at high rates. In fact, India before economic liberalisation faced this problem when it tried to tax its way to prosperity. Enabling mobility Income inequality will always exist in a market economy where people are allowed to engage in free exchange and earn incomes according to their personal capabilities. Doctors, for instance, earn many more times than plumbers and carpenters because they offer rare services.
At the same time, however, the higher incomes of the rich and the middle class do not last forever in a marketplace that is free of legal entry barriers. More people will be attracted towards professions and businesses that offer higher returns, which in turn will drive up the incomes of the new entrants while driving down the returns of incumbents This is why we must look at income mobility, which reflects the number of people moving up and down the economic ladder, and ways to foster it rather than inequality. In fact, income inequality might even widen during times when there is a lot of economic mobility. To enable mobility, however, the government needs to look beyond taxes and handouts, and ensure social goods education and healthcare for all in order to level the playing field.
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