Abhishek Srivastava is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
HINDU EDITORIAL ANALYSIS:18th DEC'17 https://unacademy.com/user/abhishek6077 Editorial analysis- Nov & October News Analysis- November & October . Crash course on Polity, Modern, Ancient & Medieval History Ncert Class VI History Summary Delhi Sultanate Essay writing
A measured leap: on planetary system Scientists have announced the discovery of two new exoplanets, Kepler-90i and Kepler-80g. Exoplanets, or planets outside our solar system, are routinely being discovered, with the number of those that have already been found now standing at 3,567 But this announcement by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the U.S. is particularly significant. First, with Kepler 90, we now know of another star besides the Sun that has eight planets orbiting it. the discovery of the planet Kepler 90i, orbiting the star Second, Christopher Shallue, a software engineer at Google, and Andrew Vanderburg, of the University of Texas, Austin, have discovered it using a deep learning neural network-an artificial intelligence tool that mimics the workings of a human brain. They "trained" their computer to analyse light readings made by NASA's Kepler Space Telescope, which are archived and made available for anyone to use.
During its mission from 2009 to 2013, the Kepler Space Telescope surveyed nearly 200,000 stars, with 35,000 possible planet signals. The duo's network was made to learn to identify true signals using 15,000 previously vetted signals. They then studied the weaker signals recorded from 670 star systems that had multiple known planets orbiting them, finally coming up with this discovery. The network also identified another Earth-sized exoplanet, Kepler 80g, orbiting the star Kepler 80. This is a very stable system in which Kepler 80g and four of its neighbours are locked together in a so-called resonant chain Deep learning and neural networks have been used in other applications successfully, as in the AlphaGo Al player of the Go game. This is not also the first time that automation has been used in identifying exoplanets. After the initial years of their discovery, when the number of known exoplanets grew, the need for automating the initial vetting process became clear.
The preprint of the Shallue-Vanderburg's paper, to be published in The Astronomical Journal, mentions the Robotvetter program, the first attempt at automating the process of rejecting false positives in the signal The preprint describes the careful process of doing away with the false positives and systemic blips before coming up with the true signals in this case, the two signals corresponding to Kepler 90i and Kepler 80g. It also indicates the caveats and failure modes in the model where it needs to be improved before it can be used to function independently. Here, then, is the takeaway good science not only solves problems but also can take a hard look at itself, at where and how it can improve. This is a leap for humankind, a measured leap.
The crisis of globalisation Today's so-called crisis of globalisation is nothing more than a new variable of the old battle between protectionism and free trade. On the one hand it is the tribalists while on the other it is the globalists. On one side there are the anti-Amazon, pro-retailers, losers of a global challenge, while on the other, there are the pro-Amazon, e-commerce winners Nothing more, really. The opening of trade walls has accelerated industrial evolution in such a way that workers have had to learn to adapt to almost every generation. The difference, today, is that the evolution didn't happen within a lifetime, but a few times within that lifetime. This is why the Indian farmer, who initially moved to the city to work in a call centre, had to reinvent himself as an Uber driver and is now worried about driverless cars all within one lifetime.
Cause of discontent Technological innovations are what accelerate the rhythm of change. The medium is the message all over again. It is the transformation of technology that affects society, not whatever that technology delivers (news, electricity, TV series) And this is why in the United States and the United Kingdom and in some parts of Europe, so many 50-somethings, unemployed, disgruntled voters who found it hard to reinvent themselves ended up voting for someone who promised to bring back an impossible past - a greater America, a more British Britain, whatever that may mean. Up until 20 to 30 years ago, you could reach your pension age before a new radical evolution in the job market, which created its winners and losers. Today, the challenge is that evolutionary shifts happen not just once before reaching pensionable age, but often. This is what causes globalisation's discontent. Blue collar workers from the mid-West cannot move to Silicon Valley; it's a totally different skill set, and only few can manage it.
A sort of revenge U.S. President Donald Trump's and Brexit's victories can be seen as a sort of "revenge of the losers". The victims of the system described above decided to vote for someone who promised to protect them. Ludicrous. And, in fact, little has been done by Mr. Trump or British Prime Minister Theresa May to help those workers. And little is being done. Their standards of living have not improved. Or have certainly not returned to previous levels. Nor is there any policy in motion indicating that the previous levels will return. There won't be any promised return to the past. Which doesn't mean the economy will not thrive. It just won't bring back the same old jobs to the unskilled. For example, the latest U.S. tax reform promises to lower corporate taxes, rehashing the ancient myth job, the "trickle down" theory, will not impact the lower middle classes who voted for Mr. Trump. At the dangerous cost of increasing the deficit and widening the hole, Mr. Trump is lowering too high corporate taxes to bring them down to European levels.
It would seem to make sense even though the impact on total taxation will be marginal. Lowering tax on capital may increase wages for those skilled workers whose productivity will be positively affected by increased demand for capital intensive work, but while engineers might see an increase in their wages, the unskilled won't benefit directly from it. In other words, instead of fighting the ills of globalisation, Mr. Trump has found a way to economically hit the coastal electorate who mocked and railed against him the Hillary Clinton voters By lowering the maximal for family deductions and real estate taxes, he has hit those middle to upper middle classes in the east and west coasts who hate him. They are the ones who will not benefit from this reform. This is what he'll obtain with this tax reform. Brilliant from his point of view because the reform dips into the pockets of people who never have and never will vote for him
How will this impact free trade globally? U.S. manufacturing is down to 11.7% of U.S. GDP (2016), while farming agriculture is only 1% (2015). America produces services such as Amazon, Google and Facebook; these are the richest corporations. Their expansion is thriving globally. And so is the expansion of other multinational corporations. Even though the discontent of globalisation is a leftover of the crisis of 2008, today we don't see that it will really impact globalisation seriously. At least, so far, we don't see the results of this desire to raise barriers. Globalisation is here to stay.
Skills within schools India has among the youngest populations in the world, which means it can make a resourceful pool of manpower. A pre-requisite though is that it receives the right form of education, skills and employment. A step in this direction is the Skill Development Mission. However, an issue that has been plaguing India since long now is jobless growth. The skilling programme has been built such that it provides short-term training to youth who have already dropped out from school. The idea is to provide them with a job by offering short-term technical/non-technical courses rather than actively enable them to seek out a career. The concern here is that those who gained employment post-training were found to have dropped out in less than one year. For those who completed a year in employment, the system did not offer a career because career advancement is not just related to skills, but also to educational qualifications.
Moreover, operational challenges within the schools are barriers to coalesce the education and skill model. For instance, BMC schooling in Maharashtra doesn't provide for more than 70-80 hours per year for a vocational subject opted for by a student. Thus, it is not possible to complete the desired National Occupational Standards requirement of 150 hours for skills training. Also, there is lack of proper infrastructure and unavailability of quality trainers. We need strategic thinking while looking at skills at school. The government must learn from the gaps while implementing its skill development programmes for 18-plus youth and then develop its strategy for integrating skills within schools.
Divorce as crime: on instant triple talaq The Centre's proposal to make instant triple talaq an offence punishable with three-year imprisonment and a fine is an unnecessary attempt to convert a civil wrong into a criminal act. .By a three-two majority, the Supreme Court has already declared, and correctly, that the practice of talaq-e-biddat, or instant divorce of a Muslim woman by uttering the word 'talaq' thrice, is illegal and unenforceable. While two judges in the majority said the practice was arbitrary and, therefore, unconstitutional, the third judge ruled that it was illegal because it was contrary to Islamic tenets Its consequence is that the husband's marital obligations remain, regardless of his intention in pronouncing it. When Parliament enacts a law to give effect to the judicial invalidation of talaq-e-biddat, it must primarily ensure protection to Muslim women against its use.