Abhishek Srivastava is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
EDITORIAL ANALYSIS FROM HINDU 7th DECEMBER 2017 https://unacade Editorial analysis Crash course on Polity Crash Course on Modern History Crash Course on Ancient History Crash Course on Medieval History . Ncert Class VI History Summary . Delhi Sultanate *Essay writing Abhishek Srivastava
Universal health coverage is the best prescription UHC provides the framework in which the issues of access, quality and cost can be integrated Three recent incidents involving the health-care sector in Delhi have sparked widespread outrage over the alleged mercenary motives and callous conduct of high-profile corporate hospital:s - Two cases involved children with dengue who died soon after leaving these hospitals in a serious condition after their families were presented huge hospitalisation and treatment bills. The third case involved a live premature baby being "declared dead" and handed over to the parents wrapped in plastic
Distrust and despair Questions have been raised about the lack of professional standards in terms of competence and compassion There is deep public distrust and despair over health care in private and public sector hospitals. Three major issues are involved when we assess health care: accesS quality cost .Solutions have to be those that fit into a common system architecture, or a system best designed and delivered as Universal Health Coverage (UHC)now enshrined in the Sustainable Development Goals. inaccessible to the rural population and the urban poor managerial talent. . While corporate hospitals boast of high quality advanced care, they are mostly . Government institutions of advanced care suffer from low budgets and a lack of
Steps to improving access Expanding the network of public sector facilities at all levels. . This calls for higher levels of public financing, investment in training and incentivised placements of more health personnel and improved management through the . These measures have been envisaged in the National Health Policy. 2017 and need .Health-care providers in the private sectors should be empanelled to fill the gaps . Quality creation of a public health management cadre. urgent and earnest implementation. through carefully crafted contracting mechanisms that best serve public interest. . There must be an emphasis on the benefit and safety of tests and treatment The Clinical Establishments Act is a good beginning, in moving health-care facilities towards registration, ensuring compliance with essential standards of equipment and performance, adopting standard management quidelines, grievance redress mechanisms, and respecting encoded patient rights.
Managing cost . Cost of care is a major challenge in a system where patients and families have to bear the burden . High out-of-pocket spending on health care leads to unacceptable levels of impoverishment Schemes can only provide limited cost coverage to subscribers. The solution lies in doubling the level of public financing to at least 2.5% of GDP by 2019, rather than 2025, as proposed in the National Health Policy, by pooling tax funding, all Central and State insurance schemes and employer-provided health insurance into a "single payer system". . Since the risk pool is very large, there is a high level of cross- subsidisation of the sick by the healthy, the poor by the rich and the elderly retired by the young employed. The burden on an individual is greatly minimised.
. These three areas of action will yield only limited results -as access alone cannot assure appropriate or affordable care and cost subsidy will be meaningless if there is limited access or undependable quality The cry for stronger regulation of quality and cost is justified but regulation will fail to UHC . The UHC provides the framework in which all three elements can be integrated. deliver needed health care to all if the health system architecture does not adopt Similarly, the success of UHC depends on effective regulation. . Now, there is a disconnect between these two in ongoing health system reforms. . It is time to bridge that gap if tragic tales of terrible health care are not to cause recurring lament.
Recognise the technology constraints India's reliance on imported digital technologies cannot be levelled overnight to make way for a uniform data law Can law fix what technology has cast in stone? The committee of experts led by Justice B.N. Srikrishna sets out to craft a data protection law for India. 18101e11001018101810100101 081e180111801810881011180 101010101101101e1010181011 0801101800101018001010810 . The committee's recent White Paper has commendably surveyed the landscape of rights and principles that could populate this new legislation. Perils of one law . What is missing from the paper, however, is an understanding of the many technologies that come together currently to protect data in India. A digital economy- such as India'sthat relies overwhelmingly on imported technologies cannot be levelled overnight to make way for a uniform data protection law.
More than 80% of Indian smartphone users today rely on Google's Android operating system. the majority of those mobile devices are sold by Samsung, Xiaomi or Oppo. and a mobile phone manufactured in China do not have similar rules to protect data enforce rules for its storage and sharing .The committee needs to believe that an operating system designed in Silicon Valley . Data of every citizen were to be held inside the country, the state could probably -But to demand "data localisation" would be unwise (the Srikrishna Committee too acknowledges this). . Many of the world's giant data centres are located in northern climes near water bodies, since they require mild temperatures and enormous quantities of water to cool thousands of servers The U.S. Department of Eneray in 2015 estimated that data centres in the country took about 2% of its overall power supply. .Can India, with its round-the-year warm climate and scarce natural resources, really afford to divert electricity and water to maintain data centres?
The theory of comparative advantage tells us that India is better off relying on servers located elsewhere, while gaining in connectivity and access to high-quality digital products There is, however, a trade-off: India's inability to localise data means its digital even contradict each other. For this reason, the Srikrishna committee cannot follow the same legal strategy used in the Aadhaar Act, which lays down strict rules for the collection and sharing of biometric and sensitive personal data. . Data protection rules are embedded into technologies by software developers according to their beliefs, which may not reflect India's statutory considerations Chinese smartphone manufacturer Huawei candidly acknowledges it may transfer the data of users to locations with no data protection laws at all. Huawei's End User License Agreement merely suggests it will provide "similar and adequate" levels of protection as the country of origin. - But how would Indian regulators ensure that the data of citizens is treated uniformly, even after it has been exported to, say, China?
In this case, the very nature of the data flow is a limit on the implementation of a data protection law . The way forward .This is not to say the Srikrishna Committee is performing an exercise in futility. Current data protection rules under the Information Technology Act urgently need an update and should reflect modern trends For instance, India can and should enact safeguards for data collected through known points of vulnerability in its digital economy a mobile phone's camera software, public Wi-Fi spots, firmware updates, QR codes, and so on -But the committee will find it difficult to conceive watertight definitions of "sensitive" data, or lay down guidelines to determine what data should be collected, when the user's consent is required, or even the kind of encryption to protect such data.
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