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Indicators of Economic Growth

In this article we will learn about Purchasing Manager Index (PMI), Real Gross Domestic Product, Per Capita Income, etc.

  • Income growth is the positive change in a country’s economic size. It is a gradual growth in the number of products and services produced per person over time.
  • Indicators of Economic Growth is understood as the practice through which a country’s true national income and per capita income rise over time.

Purchasing Manager Index (PMI)

  • The purchasing manager index serves as a barometer of economic activity in both the industrial and service sectors. It is a survey-based metric that inquires about respondents’ perceptions of important business factors from the previous month.
  • The purchasing manager index is computed individually for the industrial and service sectors before being combined to create a composite index.
  • The purchasing manager index is a composite score calculated from a set of qualitative questions. Executives from a large sample of hundreds of enterprises are asked to assess important indicators such as production, new orders, business outlook, and employment.
  • A value greater than 50 indicates an increase in company activity. Anything less than 50 indicates contraction. The bigger the difference between these two values, the greater the inflation or compression.
  • Additionally, the pace of growth may be determined by comparing the purchasing manager index to the preceding month’s data. If the statistics are more than the previous month’s, the economy will grow quickly. If it is lower than the previous month, it indicates a slower pace of growth.
  • The PMI is typically issued at the start of each month, far ahead of the majority of official statistics on industrial production, trade, and GDP growth. As a result, it is regarded as an excellent leading predictor of economic activity. Economists see the PMI’s industrial expansion as a reasonable proxy for industrial production, for which official numbers are issued later. Numerous nations’ central banks also utilise the index to assist them in making interest rate decisions.

Real Gross Domestic Product

  • GDP is the ultimate worth of products and services produced within a country’s geographic limits during a specific time period, often a year. GDP growth rate is a critical indicator of a country’s economic success.
  • Real GDP is the aggregate worth of all end products and services generated by an economy in a stated year, adjusted for rising prices.
  • It is determined using the base year’s pricing. To calculate Real GDP, you must first establish the amount of GDP that has been altered by inflation since the base year and then divide that amount by the number of years. Thus, real GDP compensates for the reality that if prices fluctuate, but production remains constant, nominal GDP changes.
  • In basic words, GDP is a metric used to describe a country’s economic production over a certain period of time. Agriculture, manufacturing, and services all contribute significantly to India’s GDP. GDP is calculated using market prices and a base year.
  • The GDP growth rate indicates the economy’s pace of expansion. This is achieved by measuring the gross domestic product of the nation in one quarter to that of the previous quarter and to the same quarter the preceding year.
  • The pace of increase of the gross domestic product is the most significant measure of economic health. It varies over the economic cycle’s four stages – peak, contraction, trough, and expansion.

Per-Capita Income

  • The per-capita income of a nation is a rudimentary indication of its wealth.
  • The per-capita income of a nation is calculated by dividing its GDP by its population.
  • The most important metric is real per-capita income. Real GDP per capita is calculated as Real GDP divided by the population.
  • The per-capita income is used to compare nations’ standards of living and is stated in regularly used international currencies such as the Dollar, Euro, and others. The real GDP is useful in determining a country’s evolution.
  • Previously, real per capita income was utilised due to the absence of a quantifiable gauge of economic progress.

Index of Eight Core Industries 

  • Index of eight core industries is a monthly volume of production indicator.
  • Index of eight core industries purpose is to offer an early indicator of the performance of ‘core’ industries prior to the publication of the Central Statistics Office’s Index of Industrial Production (IIP). These industries are expected to have an effect on both general agricultural and financial activity.
  • Index of eight core industries assesses the individually and collectively efficiency of eight key industries: coal, crude oil, natural gas, oil refinery products, fertiliser, steel, cement, and electricity.
  • The Office of the Economic Adviser (OEA), Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), Industrial Development Corporation, Government of India, compiles and publishes the index of eight core industries

 Index of Industrial Production (IIP)

  • The Index of Industrial Output (IIP) quantifies variations in an economy’s industrial production and reflects the country’s overall level of industrial activity.
  • Index of Industrial Output is a composite indicator presented as an index number that indicates the short-term variations in the volume of output of a basket of industrial items relative to the base period within a specific time.
  • Index of Industrial Output serves as a short-term measure of industrial growth until Annual Survey of Industries and National Accounts Statistics data are available. However, due to its substantial correlation with economic swings in the rest of the economy, the Index of Industrial Output is regarded as a leading indicator for short-term economic research.
  • The majority of services such as transportation, storage, communication, real estate, insurance, and banking are industry-specific and heavily impacted by industrial success.
  • The Index of Industrial Production is prepared and released monthly by the Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation’s National Statistical Office (NSO).


A variety of metrics are used as the Indicators of Economic Growth, it narrates the country’s degree of economic development. These indicators aid in determining the degree of development, as well as comparisons to other nations and other periods. These indicators aid in more effective planning for economic growth.