Every developing country’s main objective is to achieve high-income status. Agriculture has a vital role in changing economies and attaining other important development goals, such as providing food security and boosting nutrition, in order to achieve the aim. Agriculture is known as the backbone of the Indian economy, equating to 17% of GDP. As a result, agricultural transformation must become a reality in order to eradicate hunger and undernutrition while boosting economic growth.
Importance of Agriculture in India
The major source of revenue in India is agriculture. It is responsible for one fifth of the country’s GDP (GDP). It generates a range of industrial raw materials and guarantees the country’s food security. As a result, agricultural growth is critical to the economic development of our country.
Types of Farming in India
Subsistence and commercial farming:
- The vast majority of Indian farmers practice subsistence farming. This entails producing food for one’s consumption. In other words, the farmers and their families consume the majority of the production and there is no surplus to offer on the market. Landholdings are tiny and fragmented in this sort of farming. Cultivation methods are crude and simple. Farmers generally cultivate cereals and oilseeds, pulses, vegetables and sugarcane in this type of farming
- Subsistence farming is a type of farming in which virtually all of the crops or cattle grown are utilised to support the farmer and his family, with little or no surplus for sale or trade
- Subsistence farming and commercial farming are a bit different from each other. Most of the produce is sold in the market to make money in this case. In this system, farmers employ modern technology, large scale farms, innovative machinery, irrigation, chemical fertilisers, insecticides, herbicides and high yielding varieties of seeds, among other inputs. Cotton, jute, sugarcane, peanuts, coffee, tobacco, tea, oil seeds, and various other commercial crops are grown in different parts of India. On the other hand, rice production would be predominantly subsistence in India’s North-Eastern states
Intensive and Extensive Farming:
- The amount of production per unit of land is the main difference between these two forms of farming. Extensive farming is when a considerable area of land is used for cultivation. Total production may be high because of the more extensive area, but per unit production is low
- Extensive farming is an agricultural production strategy that employs low labour, fertiliser, and capital inputs in comparison to the amount of land being farmed
- Extensive agriculture is a crop-cultivation technique that uses a small quantity of labour and capital in comparison to the amount of land being farmed in agricultural economics
- Intensive farming is an agricultural strategy that seeks to acquire the most production from the given land. It is a technique used to generate a productive workforce by maintaining large numbers of cattle indoors
- Intensive farming refers to a system of cultivation that employs a considerable amount of labour and capital in relation to land area. Fertiliser, insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides require a lot of labour and money to apply to growing crops, and capital is especially important for the purchase and maintenance of high-efficiency machinery
- Intensive farming produces a lot of food per square metre of land. The best example for intensive agriculture may be Japan, where agricultural land is scarce. In India, the state of Kerala is experiencing a similar predicament. Farmers in West Bengal, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu practise intense wet paddy cropping in India
- It’s a farm that grows a single cash crop for sale. Growing and processing a single cash crop solely for sale is the focus of this style of agriculture. Plantation crops include tea, coffee, rubber, bananas and spices. The British brought most of these crops to India in the 19th century
- It is a condition in which both crop and animal rearing are carried out simultaneously. Farmers who practise mixed farming are better off financially than those who do not. The nature and aim of farming are the basis for all classifications. They may collide, banana farming, for example, is a sort of plantation farming. Commercial farming is another term for it
|Sl. No||Types of Crops||Meaning||Major Crops|
|1.||Food grains||Crops grown specifically for human consumption||Rice, wheat, maize, millets, pulses and oilseeds are some of the most common foods.|
|2.||Commerci–al Crops||Crops that are raised for sale in their natural state or in a semi-processed state.||Cotton, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and oilseeds are some of the most common crops.|
|3.||Plantation Crops||Plantation crops are those that are cultivated on big estates and are grown on plantations.||Rubber, coffee and coconut|
|4.||Horticulture||Fruits and vegetables are grown in sections of agriculture.||Fruits and vegetables are grown in sections of agriculture.|
- Invest in increasing farm production
- Adopting and learning new technology is a must
- Maintain resiliency in the face of global economic issues
- Environmental damage due to increasing use of pesticides to fulfil the needs of an overgrowing population
- Coping with the climatic change
- Satisfying the changing needs and expectations of the customers
Steps Taken by Government
The government provides loans to farmers through rural banks and cooperative institutions, as well as seeds, fertilisers, and modern farming equipment, in order to encourage agricultural enterprises. Farmers are also taught about soil testing, dairy farming, poultry, and cattle husbandry, among other things.
Farmers can now produce more with less personnel, striving for higher yields while using less inputs, thanks to technological advancements. Agricultural modernisation improves worker productivity, increases agricultural surplus to finance investment, and boosts foreign exchange through exports, all of which help to set the ground for industrialisation. However, with changes in weather and climatic circumstances, technology advancements, and socio-cultural behaviours, all of these approaches have developed dramatically through time.
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