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Health Infrastructure and India

State of Health Infrastructure: Health System in India, India’s health infrastructure and health care etc.

Health is the holistic process related to the overall growth and development of the nation by providing the ability to realize one’s potential as an individual. It is not merely limited to the absence of disease.  

  1. Hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, doctors, nurses, druggists, and other paramedical professionals, beds, equipment required in hospitals and pharmacies, etc., come under health infrastructure. 
  2. However, the mere presence of infrastructure is not enough. It needs to be accessible as well. 
  3. It has been a focus of planning to ensure that no individual is denied health care merely due to the inability to pay. 

State of Health Infrastructure:

Since 1947 there have been a lot of improvements in the health and physical provision of health services.  

  1. The government pays much attention to the health sector and makes strategic plans through the Central Council of Health and Family Welfare.
  2. The government collects informative data and provides assistance to the state governments and union territories, the essential financial cum service help for the health care sector.  
  3. As per the collected data during the period from 1951 to 2018, the number of government hospitals and dispensaries have increased from 9,300 to 53,800 and hospital beds from 1.2 to 7.1 lakhs. 
  4. Nursing personnel too increased up to 30 lakh and allopathic doctors up to 11.5 lakhs. 
  5. In recent days, the government set up PHCs (Primary Health Centres) at the village level.
  6. A number of nursing homes and hospitals are run by voluntary agencies and private owners.

Due to the development of health infrastructure, India has been able to eradicate smallpox, guinea worms, and near eradication of polio and leprosy.

Health Care System in India:

  1. The health infrastructure of India is made up of a three-layer system— primary, secondary, and tertiary. 
  2. Primary health care: Under primary health care, first aid is taken, which means health awareness, identifying health issues, their prevention, and control. Promotion of healthy foods, pure drinking water, multivitamins, etc. The practice of sanitation, maternity care, child health care, healthy mental status, provision of essential drugs, etc.
  3. Auxiliary Nursing Midwife (ANM) is assigned the work of providing primary healthcare in rural India by the government.  
  4. Primary Health Centres (PHC), Community Health Centres (CHC), and sub-centers, have been established in villages to provide primary health care there, generally manned by a single doctor and limited staff.
  1. Secondary health care institutions: Hospitals that have better facilities for surgery, X-ray, electrocardiogram (ECGs), etc.  
  1. They function both as primary healthcare providers and also provide better healthcare facilities. They are commonly established in district headquarters and big towns. 
  2. Tertiary sector: Here come the hospitals laced with modern medical equipment. They undertake critical problems and can not be managed at the primary and secondary levels.
  3. Premier institutes that are included in the tertiary sector impart quality medical education, conduct research, and provide specialized health care. Some of them are the All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi, Post Graduate Institute, Chandigarh,