RUSSIAN INDUSTRIALISATION PART 5 BY NANDINI MAHARAJ
Problems of Industrialization in Russia and Revolution: This growth was not matched by the construction of new housing, so industrial employers had to house workers in ramshackle dormitories and tenements. Most lived in unhygienic and often freezing conditions, they ate meals of stale bread and buckwheat gruel in crowded meal-houses. -Things were even worse in the factories, where hours were long and the work was monotonous and dangerous. Witte's economic reforms had met, even exceeded national goals - but they also gave rise to a new working class that
was exploited, poorly treated, clustered together in large numbers and therefore susceptible to revolutionary ideas. -In the slums around the factories, poverty, disease, and discontent multiplied Radicals sought supporters among the new industrial workers -At factory gates, Socialists often handed out pamphlets that preached the revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx. -Russia, always on the look out for a warm water port, found a suitable spot at the end of the Trans-Siberian railroad The planned end point in the Trans-Siberian railroad was Vladivostok
However, by going through Manchuria as planned in the Russian-Chinese Friendship treaty of 1895, Russia gained Darien and Port Arthur - two warm water ports. This would have increased industrial productivity and overall economic health even more, Unfortunately, the Russian control of Manchuria led to the Russo- Japanese war in 1904, just before the railroad was completed The lack of resources strained the economy. -Industry was forced to put out wartime effort without workers.
The disaster that the Russo-Japanese War turned into manifested itself in civil unrest, workers overworked and underpaid were starving in the cities because peasants farming in the country had no way to transport crops from the rural to the urban areas -Frustrated workers began to strike. -In January of 1905 Moscow was crippled by strikes. -From 1905 to 1917 industry remained in a latent state. While it was not completely crippled it did not bring equal or sufficient wealth to all involved. When World War I came, Russia was not prepared and the lack of resources necessary in war halted economic growth.
-Workers were pulled from the factory, and conscripted in the army. The main reason for Russia's difficulties during the First World War was lack of efficient transportation and sufficient ammunition The Russians went to war with whole regiments of soldiers without weapons or ammunition. Many soldiers deserted the army to come home to kill a landowner and get himself more land. Without the proper supplies, the Russian forces were not motivated to fight.
The loss of Poland in 1915 nearly halted the industrialization of Russia. Poland was the transportation and industry base of Russia, without Poland the war effort was impossible The ensuing Russian Revolution of 1917, in which Nicholas Il abdicated, also proved to be a thorn in the side of industry as it further slowed the process of economic and industrial growth in Russia as strikes spread and opposition toward the Czar grevw The Reign of Nicholas Il saw the rise and regression of industry in Russia.
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MA in Applied Human Rights from Sheffield Hallam University, BA (Hons.) History from LSR, reader, dancer, love to teach, AIR 42 in 2018 UPSC