Nandini Maharaj is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
RUSSIAN INDUSTRIALISATION PART 3 BY NANDINI MAHARAJ
Introducing Other Reforms: Alexander Il set up a system of local government. -Elected assemblies, called zemstvos, were made responsible for matters such as road repair, schools, and agriculture. Russians gained some experience of selfgovernment at the local level The tsar also introduced legal reforms based on ideas like trial by jury, and he eased censorship. Military service terms were reduced, and brutal discipline was limited
which still relied heavily on agriculture. -In the 1870's the government initiated several large infrastructure programs, particularly the construction of railways.
Revolutionary Currents: Alexander's reforms failed to satisfy many Russians. Peasants had freedom but not land Liberals wanted a constitution and an elected legislature Radicals, who had adopted socialist ideas from the West, demanded even more revolutionary changes. -The tsar, meantime, moved away from reform and toward repression -In the 1870s, some socialists went to live and work among peasants, preaching reform and rebellion. They had little
success. The peasants scarcely understood them and sometimes turned them over to the police. The failure of this movement, combined with renewed government repression, sparked anger among radicals. Some turned to terrorism -On March 13, 1881, terrorists assassinated Alexander II
Crackdown: Alexander ll responded to his father's assassination by reviving the harsh methods of Nicholas I. -increased the power of the secret police, -restored strict censorship, -and exiled critics to Siberia. -Launched a program of Russifcation aimed at suppressing the cultures of non-Russian peoples within the empire Alexander insisted on one language, Russian, and one church, the Russian Orthodox Church. Poles, Ukrainians,
Finns, Armenians, Muslims, Jews, and many others suffered persecution. Due to the persecution, a large numbers of Russian Jews went to the United States.
The Drive to Industrialization: Russia's industrial revolution was later than most because the agricultural techniques used in the mid nineteenth century had not changed since the medieval period. - Farmers still left a third of their land lie fallow so that it would replenish its supply of nitrogen. -Without a strong agricultural foundation industrialization was impossible -In the latter half of the nineteenth century, the modern agricultural techniques came into common practice
Legumes were planted on land that once would have laid fallow as it replaced nitrogen more quickly. Legumes also created more fodder for cattle, more cattle could be kept. More cattle meant more meat, cheese, milk, butter, and natural fertilizer for more plentiful and substantial crops. -Russia finally entered the industrial age under Alexander llI and his son Nicholas II -In the 1890s, Nicholas' government focused on economic development.
-It encouraged the building of railroads to connect iron and coal mines with factories and to transport goods across Russia -It also secured foreign capital to invest in industry and transportation systems, such as the Trans-Siberian Railroad, which linked European Russia to the Pacific Ocean.