.EVMs- The challenges By Yasmin Gill
Know your educator Yasmin Gill BE (EEE) from UIET, PU in 2014 Qualified for UPSC Mains State Rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Follow me on Unacademy https://unacademy.com/user/yashi.gilloi
Discount Code for Plus- 'yashi.gill01 QUESTION OF THE DAY Q- The binary debate on whether to use EVMs or not fails to throw light on actual challenges that this new technology faces. Instead, to what extent does the ECI's EVM compare with manual paper based ballot on various parameters is the way forward. Comment
BEST WAY TO VOTE IE Whether or not to use EVMs has been a raging debate Correctness - All votes are accurately counted No false/duplicate votes Secrecy It should be impossible to determine who an individual voted for Anonymity follows from secrecy Secrecy and anonymity are necessary conditions for coercion-free voting though the converse is not true Sufficient conditions for coercion-free voting will require methods and processes beyond an EVM.
Verifiability It should be possible to prove to every voter individually that their vote has been accounted for corectly Verifiability also implies non-repudiability that is, if a voter falsely claims to have voted differently from what she actually did, it should be possible to prove that the claim is false Whereas verifiability requires that the EVM must record both the vote and sorme function of the identity of the voter, secrecy requires that the EVM should not allow the inference of the mapping between the two Identity verification must be certified by the polling officer and can either be offine or online, and must have its own guarantees.
Reliability has three main requirements Un-hackability EVM should be tamper-proof Fault tolerance-System should be resilient to network & component failure There should never be any data loss Consistency Design and implementation of all EVMs must be identical and provably so at all stages of the election Auditability and self-certifiability It should be possible to verify the abov e invariant conditions at all stages of voting, including before the start, at a ny time during voting, and after the voting ends EVM should be able to self-certify and provide proofs of all the above invariants at any stage.
Designing a provably-correct EVM satisfying all the above properties is as yet an unsolved problem of computer science Rebecca Mercuri, a computer scientist and the original proponent of a VVPAT based design Verification of a design for an EVM such as above will be a difficult problem Though that does not suggest that rigorous verification cannot be worked out The crucial question, then, is to precisely evaluate to what extent does the ECITs EVM satisfy the above properties and how does it compare with manual paper based ballot? For example, merely tallying the EVM count with the manual WPAT count, without guaranteeing that there is no spurious voting, does not establish correctness VVPATs, or even secure strongrooms, do not guarantee against pre-designed adversarial, side-channel or Trojan attacks
t this doesn't mean that ECT's EVM is necessarily a worse option than manual ballot which does not even guarantee correctness and, at best, only approximately satisfies secrecy, anonymity and fault-tolerance Manual ballot has the advantage of not taking away agency from the poll officials, whose understanding of the poll process enables them to improvise on the spot to try and ensure correctness In contrast uncertainity of an EVM makes its correctness analysis absolutely crucial Public posturing by the ECI does not engender confidence For informed risk assessment it is imperative that complete design, analysis and the hardware synthesis specifications be made public at the earliest so that the EVM may be subjected to rigorous scrutiny by the general public, institutions, political party representatives and experts Security by obfuscation is unacceptable in the modem age.
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