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The Hindu Daily Editorial DiScussion 9/2/19 By - Ashish Singh
Ashish Singh VERITED Edit Profile IB ACIO ll-2017(Mains Qualified), UPSC aspirant Exam cleared-SSC CPO (2014), SSC CGL Tier (2016-Qualified for Mains), DSSSB (Mains) 19,125 Views in last 30 days N285,035 Lifetime Views 62 Courses 9.7k Followers 28 Following NEWS Indian Polity By Ashish Singh By Ashish Singh By Ashish Singh February 2019: The Hindu Daily Editorial and Prelims Based. (Hindi) February, 2019 The Hindu Daily Editorial and Prelims... (Hindi) Understanding Entire Polity Through MCQs 19 Lessons 19 Lessons 5 Lessons
Page 8 Page 9 Surveying India's unemployment numbers A Himalayan travesty India's labour participation rate, very low by world standards, fell sharply after demonetisation. Women bore the brunt Survivors of sex trafficking in Nepal were shocked when a local politician convicted of selling young Nepali girls to brothels in India was released by the Supreme Court of Nepal last year. Rajneesh Bhandari reports on the victims' fight for justice Forty years after the Iranian revolution .A political change beckons which will not be easy but it is as certain as the overthrow of the Shah The Jharkhand way .The Opposition would do well to focus on State- level coherence in alliances Nigerian renewal Muhammadu Buhari's mixed record in office makes the presidential contest an open race
Surveying India's Unemployment Numbers GS PAPER 3 Indian Economy and issues relating to employment WORKERS i INVOLUNTARY SINC MCn OSALARY GOVERNMENT RIPAIRMEN MARKET UUDCOUNTRIS DIFTEREN OR LEVEL UNEMPLOYED" NOMICNUMBERe
Employment, Full Employment And Unemployment " Employment: It refers to a situation when a person is able to earn his livelihood either through self employment or by working as wage-employment Full Employment Unemployment: It refers to a situation when a person who is able and willing to work does not get work at the prevailing wage rate. Definition: Full employment means a situation in which all of the people who are willing and able to work are able to find employment.
FOUR TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT SEASONAL UNEMPLOYMENT FRICTIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYHENT CYCLICAL UNEMPLOYMENT Structural Unemployed skills do not match current demand for labor . Cyclical - Relatedto business cycletoo low a level of GDP growth occurs during recessions fat troughi or periods of slow GDP growth .Frictional - Temporarily between Jobs or new to labor force . Seasonal Out of work based on time of year FRICTIONAL CYCLICAL - INVOLUNTARY & VOLUNTARY STRUCTURAL
Labor Force & Labor Force Participation Rate Labor force-The labor force is the sum of those people who are officially employed and unemployed Unemployment naneloyedPeiens Rate Labor Force Labor force participation rate -The percentage of the working-age population that is in the civilian labor force: includes employed and unemployed Labor force LFPR x 100 Working-Age Population
Monthly measurement of the unemployment rate is one of the requirements of the Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS) of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The SDDS- India was one of the early signatories-was established in 1996 to help countries access the international capital markets by providing adequate economic and financial information publicly. India complies with many requirements of the SDDS, but it has taken an exception with respect to the measurement of unemployment.
The Government of India does not produce any measure of monthly unemployment rate, nor does it have any plans to do so. Official plans to measure unemployment at an annual and quarterly frequency is in a shambles This does not befit India's claims to be the fastest growing economy and as the biggest beneficiary of a famed demographic dividend. The Centre for Monitoring India Economy (CMIE), a private enterprise, has demonstrated over the past three years that fast frequency measures of unemployment can be made and that seeking an exception on SDDS compliance is unnecessary
Further, the CPHS is conducted as face-to-face interviews necessarily using GPS-enabled smartphones or tablets. Intense validation systems ensure high fidelity of data capture. All validations are conducted in real-time while the teams are in the field. The data capture machinery ensures delivery of high quality data in real time obviating the need for any further "cleaning", post field operations. Once the data is collected and validated in real-time, it is automatically deployed for estimations without any human intervention
In 2016, the CMIE added questions regarding employment/unemployment to the CPHS. Since then, the CMIE has been generating labour market indicators regularly and making these freely available for public use (https://bit.ly/20xLAs4) snely avalable for bubhi A difference between the CPHS and the NSSO surveys is the reference period of the employment status of a respondent. While the NSSO tries to capture the status for an entire year and for a week, the CPHS captures the status as on the day of the survey
Since the recall period in the CPHS is of the day of the survey (or the immediate preceding day in the case of daily wage labourers) and the classification is elementary, the CPHS has been able to capture the status fairly accurately with no challenges of the respondent's ability to recall or interpret the status. In contrast, the NSSO's system is quite complex. The large CPHS sample is distributed evenly across rural and urban regions for every week of the execution cycle of 16 weeks of a wave.
The data show that it was not the employed who lost jobs and decided to stop working. The employed mostly retained their jobs. But it was largely the unemployed who decided that the labour markets had been so badly vitiated after demonetisation that they gave up looking for jobs any further. mployed who decdes thntht bhet savelos o o anv In short, they lost hope of finding jobs in the aftermath of demonetisation.
The CPHS shows that the situation with respect to women's participation in the labour force is extremely poormuch poor s tell us. rer than what the official agencie The n. Their labour participation fell sharply while that of men did not. After the demonetisation jolt came the Goods and Services Tax shock of July 2017 that drove away small enterprises which could not compete in a tax-compliant environment out of business. This caused a substantial loss of jobs. Preliminary estimates suggest that employment shrunk by 11 million in 2018. The brunt of this was again borne largely by women. But men too were also impacted.
This higher unemployment rate faced by women in spite of a very low participation rate indicates a bias against employing women. Drawing women into the labour force by removing the impediments they face to at least bring their participation levels close to global standards is critically important for India to gain from the demographic dividend opportunity it has. This window of opportunity is open only till 2030. By not using a good data monitoring machinery, the Indian government is keeping both itself and the citizenry in the dark.
Forty Years After The Iranian Revolution GS Paper 1 World History O Iran's primary TURKEY nuclear facilities Tehran Damascus Baghdad ISRAELDama AFGHANISTAN IRAC Istahan IRAN ORDAN KUWAIT o Bushehr PAKISTAN SAUDI ARABIA Red Sea Persian Gut Riyadh EGYPT Miles 500
1941 1951 1979 1980s 1989 2005 2009 Democraticaly electedanbecoms Mohammed Reza : Pahlavi becomes Shah . : (King) of iran, adopts proWestern foreign policy Relations with the i Ayatollan Ahmadinejad reelected : Isiamic Republia following the Iranian: deeriorate over theby Ayatoilah All :Revolution. Ayatollah Prime Minister Western world next decade following nrontations dies and is sucoeededAhmadinejad electedin contentious election : : foreign poliay a: Mchammad Mossa : President of lran thousands of Iranians toke to the streets in largest mass protests since the Iranian degh oerthrown by US : Khamenei who : and UK for his efforts Ruholah Khomeni: number of international ontinues anti-Westem; : becomes Supreme to nationalize the .country's oil industry ranian Revolution TIMELINE 1978 (January: Hassan Ali Mansur (Prime Minister of Iran) is assassinated and Amir Abbas Hoveyda takes the place 1978 CJan 7: In a news paper called Black and Red Imperialism, was an article written about Khomeini proposing he was 1978 Wan9 A demonstration of 4000 people against the article resulted in the death of many students 1978 (Feb 18: Another protest against the Shah erupted in Tabriz. Around 100 people were killed homosexual. 1978 (March 29): Another demonstration in Yazd. More protestors are killed 1978(August12 More protestors are killed in Isfahan. 1978 (Aug 19 Cinema Rex fire
Friedrich Nietzsche prophesised with remarkable accuracy that the 20th century would be marked by great wars fought in the name of philosophical ideas. . But what Nietzsche could not have anticipated was that towards the end of the 20th century there would be a revolution in the name of god, establishing a Shi'ite theocracy The Iranian revolution of 1978-1979 (picture) was a momentous development in the modern history of Islam . And it had a huge impact on all movements across the globe, especially those that were using Islamic frames of reference for political activism.
.Some, like the French thinker Michel Foucault, enthusiastically declared the Iranian revolution as the spirit of a world without spirit. Foucault wrote: "One bears on Iran and its peculiar destiny. At the dawn of history, Persia invented the state and conferred its models on Islam. Its administrators staffed the caliphate. But from this same Islam, it derived a religion that gave to its people infinite resources to resist state power. In this will for an 'Islamic government', should one see a reconciliation, a contradiction, or the threshold of something new?" Following Foucault, we can say that from the very beginning, the Iranian Revolution remained a significant social and political transformation
. Also, in the Iranian revolution as in the French and later the Russian revolutions, the coalition did not last very long and the Iranian clerics ended up having a leading role. But, the interesting point is that most non-clerics who were in the opposition against the Shah of Iran underestimated the probability of clerical rule, despite the presence of the clergy in all major political events in Iran since the Constitutional Revolution of 1906. Moreover, for too many observers inside and outside Iran today, events leading up to the revolution in 1979 took a mystifying and seemingly irrational course.
If we consider the Iranian revolution not only as a political event but also as a psychological watershed, exactly as it was the case with the rise of Hitler to power in 1933 in Germany, we can understand why many Iranians believed back in 1978 that there was a messianic nature to Ayatollah Khomeini's leadership. as a ical watershesd, eracany, we can understand wih In truth, Khomeini's success in the Iranian revolution had certainly nothing to do with divine providence, but given that the Iranian population believed for centuries in the divine right of kings, it should have come as little surprise that the people were receptive to such ideas rather than having an acute sense of political pragmatism.
Khomeini's leadership, followed by the establishment of the Islamic Republic in lran, therefore, can be understood in patrimonial terms, assisted by periodic doses of charisma. .The immediate consequence of this socio-religious attitude was to institutionalise Khomeini's role as the leader of the revolution.
But there is also a political side to the story: Khomeini was not only popular among common Iranians for his uncompromising attitude to the Shah and his anti-imperialist and populist rhetoric since 1963, but also because he and his followers were fully ready and organised for the establishment of an Islamic regime in Iran. . As a result, defying all the myths of secular modernisation and shattering all the political ideologies of modernity, the Islamic Republic became the first theocratic state in the modern world to have institutionalised the Shi'ite idea of Velayat-e- Faqih, or the "rule of the jurist". "rule ea of kween tra . However, the institutionalisation of Khomeini's role as the "fagih" did not manage the implicit tensions which continue to exist between tradition and modernity.
Despite total Islamisation and the reign of terror unleashed on political groups, there were advancements of Iranian civil society due to demographic changes, the rise of literacy and the magic fluidity of Iranian society The insertion of cultural politics into the everyday lives of young Iranians in the name of Islamic purity created the reverse attitude and a sentiment of confrontation with the Islamic regime.
These questions remain unanswered, but if one thing is certain, it is that Iran is going towards a political change. . This political change is not going to be an easy and a quick one, but it will happen with the same certainty that the revolution happened