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19 February, 2019 DNA based prelims booster news discussion
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Ashish Singh
IB ACIO II- 2017(Mains Qualified), Verified Exam cleared- SSC CPO (2014), SSC CGL Tier (2016 - Qualified for Mains), DSSSB (Mains)

U
Unacademy user
mam why antibodies are called as serum proteins, proteins, or glycoprotein I didn't get this? plzzzz explain thiss
serum includes all the proteins which are not involved in blood clotting and all the electrolytes , antibodies , antigens and hormones . Antibodies are immunoglobulins i.e. proteins ( Y shaped structure ) produced by plasma cells which detects antigens and acts against them . that is the reason antibodies are called serum proteins or glycoproteins . i hope your doubt is clear now payal !!
Payal Rathod
a year ago
mam again I didn't get this ur sentence antigen are immunoglobulin
Payal Rathod
a year ago
sorry antibodies are immunoglobulin this sentence
Antibodies are globular proteins (globulins )present in the serum . Antibodies are also called immunoglobulins .
Payal Rathod
a year ago
thanks mam
thats why i said antigens are immunoglobulins .
Payal Rathod
a year ago
and again one question mam AIDS is caused HIV virus then mam what is retro virus does HIV has evolved from retrovirus or what? this is my big confusion......plzzzz explain
is that clear to you payal ?
Payal Rathod
a year ago
yes clear mam
Payal Rathod
a year ago
and again one question mam AIDS is caused by HIV virus then mam what is retro virus does HIV has evolved from retrovirus or what? this is my big confusion......plzzzz explain
The answer to your next question is that ... HIV is itself a retrovirus . A retrovirus is a type of virus which uses RNA as its genetic material and it uses the enzyme called reverse trancriptase to convert its RNA to DNA and make its copies inside the Host . Example of retrovirus is HIV .
Payal Rathod
a year ago
thank you mam👩☺😊
welcome payal :)
Payal Rathod
a year ago
mam in NCERT under the topic comman diseases in humans it is written when any pathogens enter in our body It results in morphological and functional damageeee I didn't get this plzzz explain? ??????
Payal Rathod
a year ago
and again NCERT says one word malignant malaria what is malignant malaria explain ????
Payal Rathod
a year ago
and last but the least one more query mam "HIV infection is more often, spread due to conscious behaviour patterns and is not something that happens inadvertently like pneumonia or typhoid " explain this big line
Payal Rathod
a year ago
sorry mam one more question "MRI uses strong magnetic fields and non ionising radiations to accurately detect pathological and physiological changes in the living tissues"???? which type of morphological and physiological changes they are talking about....?
whenever a pathogen enters a body it damages the functions of our body and morphology means the structure of any part . so a pathogen entering the body may damage the morphology and which leads to functional damage.
malignant malaria is a type of malaria caused by plasmodium falciparum it is the most fatal type of disease and can even cause the death of a person . that is why it is called malignant malaria.
and for HIV one i have an exercise for you .find out the methods of transmission of AIDS and diseases like pneumonia and typhoid .
MRI detects the morphology and physiology of living tissues , by morphology we mean shape , structure and size etc. and by physiology we mean the function , so basically MRI can detect any kind of change in structure and function of a particular organ .
Payal Rathod
a year ago
thanks mam .....
welcome payal :)
Payal Rathod
a year ago
mam why it is said that antibody mediated immune response persist for few months in our body????
Payal Rathod
a year ago
as compared to cell mediated immune response
Payal Rathod
a year ago
as compared to cell mediated immune response
cell mediated immunity involves activation of phagocytes or cytokines .. which acts on cells invaded by pathogens, tumor cells, or transplanted cells , which immediately destroys it . whereas in case on antibody mediated immunity .. it can be stored as a memory so as to prevent further invasion of any pathogen in lymph or blood .
Payal Rathod
a year ago
ya mam ur correct but my question is not that my question is why it is said that antibody mediated immune response persist for few days compared to cell mediated immune response
Payal Rathod
a year ago
and this antibody mediated immune response should persist for longer time in our body as antibodies gets form as a result of secondary immune response and this antibodies will stay in our body for lifetime so there is no chance of disease to cause for second time antibodies formed against that antigen will not allow to cause disease again for the second time in our whole life so I can say that it is persisting for long period......?
thats what i said that it gets stored as a memory .
Payal Rathod
a year ago
mam nucleus to cytoplasmic ratio will be more in normal cell or cancerous cell? ????
cancerous cells have high nucleus / cytoplasmic ratio.
Payal Rathod
a year ago
so mam can we say that their nucleus size will also gets increased?
yes it increases .
Payal Rathod
a year ago
thank you mam😊😊
welcome 😊😊
Payal Rathod
a year ago
hii mam I have doubt about the diameter of DNA the diameter of DNA is 20 angstrom so mam they calculate that vertically or horizontally means they are talking about which
Payal Rathod
a year ago
hii mam I have doubt about the diameter of DNA the diameter of DNA is 20 angstrom so mam they calculate that vertically or horizontally means they are talking about which
horizontally.
Payal Rathod
a year ago
okay thank you mam
welcome :)
Payal Rathod
a year ago
mam does entire DNA has palandromic sequence
Payal Rathod
a year ago
mam does entire DNA has palandromic sequence?
no ; only some parts of DNA have palindromic sequence.
Payal Rathod
a year ago
okay and mam u plzzz uplode ur videos on molecular basis of inheritance.... it is actually creating mee many doubts as I am preparing without coaching...
Payal Rathod
a year ago
so preparing without coaching means it strikes many queries
sure payal :)
Payal Rathod
a year ago
mam how many proteins gets formed from single mrna after translation...
it keeps on forming untill the termination stage is reached .... a polypeptide chain is formed at the end . it depends on the mRNA
Payal Rathod
a year ago
okay
Payal Rathod
a year ago
okay
Payal Rathod
a year ago
mam do both strands of DNA has genes????
yes
Payal Rathod
a year ago
mam kya hum exons or introns ko hee genes kahtee hai or this are not genes?
Payal Rathod
a year ago
and mam who are called as structural genes
exons and introns are not genes
Payal Rathod
a year ago
and mam who are called as structural genes
Payal Rathod
a year ago
and mam if exons and introns are not genes then what they are called as?
a gene that codes for the amino acid sequence of a protein is called structural gene.
exons are called coding regions and introns are non coding regions , introns are spliced out during transcription.
Payal Rathod
a year ago
and mam last but the least how many genes are present on DNA?
Payal Rathod
a year ago
and mam last but the least how many genes are present on DNA?
The Human Genome Project has estimated that humans have between 20,000 and25,000 protein coding genes.
Payal Rathod
a year ago
mam u r talking about each DNA or what means each DNA will have 20000 to 25,000 genes and there are total 46 dsDNA in each cell
yes each Dna hai 20,000 to 25000 genes
Payal Rathod
a year ago
thank you thank you so much I have trouble u a lot today.
Payal Rathod
a year ago
😄😄😄😄😄
welcome payal :)
Payal Rathod
a year ago
mam what is the difference between nucleosome and chromatin?
Chromatin is the condensed DNA wrapped around histone protein . whereas, Nucleosome is a unit of DNA wrapped around 8 histones.
Payal Rathod
a year ago
but mam what is unit of DNA
as we know that chromatin is a condensed form of DNA ... when one chromatin which means a unit of DNA (in condensed form ) is wrapped in the histone it is called nucleosome
Payal Rathod
a year ago
thanks mam
welcome payal 😊
Payal Rathod
a year ago
mam how many amino acids are required to make one protein?
there are 20 amino acids present .... but number of amino acids to make one protein depends only on the type of protein .
Payal Rathod
a year ago
okay thanks mam
welcome :)
Payal Rathod
a year ago
mam why euchromatin are called transcriptionally active region?
Euchromatin is a lightly packed form of chromatin , that is enriched in genes, and is often transcriptionally active because It comprises of most active regions of human genome. 92% of human genome is euchromatin. The rest is heterochromatin.
Payal Rathod
a year ago
hi mam I have one big doubt I'm getting confused as it is said that a set N-bases which codes for proteins are called as genes but the thing is that even DNA has genes but genes not at all form on DNA they are forming froms on mRNA according to central dogma and the function of gene is code proteins even DNA has genes
A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes, which are made up of DNA, act as instructions to make PROTEINS. A nitrogenous base is simply a nitrogen-containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base. They are particularly important since they make up the building blocks of DNA and RNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil. so a particular arrangement of n- bases helps in forming protein .
any particular strand of DNA which contains information is gene .... and the whole DNa has N-bases .. so ultimately gene is also made up of N- Bases.
Payal Rathod
a year ago
ya mam ur correct but I'm not saying that mam questions was that genes are present on DNA and function of gene is to code proteins but proteins are not at all forms on DNA. (since the function of our gene according to defination is to code proteins) but according to central dogmaa proteins are not at all forms on DNA they get through mrna and function of DNA is to code proteins and even our DNA has genes..
Payal Rathod
a year ago
ya mam ur correct but I'm not saying that mam questions was that genes are present on DNA and function of gene is to code proteins but proteins are not at all forms on DNA. (since the function of our gene according to defination is to code proteins) but according to central dogmaa proteins are not at all forms on DNA they get through mrna and function of DNA is to code proteins and even our DNA has genes..
M-rna acts only as a messenger that conveys genetic information from dna to ribisomes . If DNA would directly have to translate into protein, there is a high risk of the loss of genetic material. Also DNA is very tightly packed, so unwinding it every now and then will not be energy efficient. Secondly, most of the regions of DNA do not code for a protein, so it is more logical to convert protein coding regions to mRNA. Thirdly, protein is translated on ribosomes (in cytoplasm) and so DNA has to migrate to cytoplasm to translate protein and the osmotic nature of cytoplasm may result in DNA damage. So the cellular machinery uses mRNA as an intermediate to produce protein.
Payal Rathod
a year ago
okay ab samzee thanks a lot mam ur are my favourite on unacademy 😁😄👩👀👱
Payal Rathod
a year ago
as u explains very nicely
thankyou so much payal 😊
Payal Rathod
a year ago
mam what is a function of topoisomerase enzymes in DNA replication ??? actually I'm not getting in a proper way
Topoisomerase is an enzyme which participates in the unwinding of DNA helix ….During DNA replication, the DNA needs to be unwound in order for replication machinery to gain access to the DNA so it can be copied or replicated, respectively.
Payal Rathod
a year ago
then mam even SSbc also has the same function. 😰
Payal Rathod
a year ago
then mam even SSbc also has the same function. 😰
what do you mean by SSbc?
Payal Rathod
a year ago
sorry it is single strand binding protein.
yeah !
Payal Rathod
a year ago
hii mam I have one doubt while replication of DNA there are few steps 1st is activation of nucleotide (ie to add ATP to dNTP's) and my question is why there is need to activate nucleotide before happening of replication of DNA.!!!! I didn't get thisss? plzz explain😊
Payal Rathod
a year ago
and mam function of topoisomeras is to release tension in DNA which type of tension they are talking about?
The enzyme topoisomerase helps in unwinding the helical structure of DNA by breaking the bond between the two Nitrogenous bases present in DNA .
and as far as your first question is concerned ..it may get activated so that a new strand can be formed .
  1. DNA Based Prelims Booster News Discussior for PT - 2019 By - Ashish Singh


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