The Hindu Daily Editorial Discussion 26/2/19 By - Ashish Singh
plus Teaching live on Unacademy Plus Unlimited access to all plus courses . Structured live courses . Learn from experienced educators Learn more Yunacademy Environment And NEWS Ecoloagy By Ashish Singh By Ashish Singh By Ashish Singh (Hindi) 100 MCQ's on Environment and Hindi) February, 2019 The Hindu Daily February 2019: The Hindu Daily Editorial and Prelims Based.. Ecology Editorial and Prelims 9 Lessons 60 Lessons 59 Lessons
Page 8 Page 9 Coalition of the concerned Multi-pronged diplomacy is vital to compel Pakistan to end its support for terrorist groups .The case of Shamima Begum .If the U.K. goes with the exclusionary . instinct of an angry public, it will be dangerous for democracy The correct prescription Entry of e-pharmacies will bring down the price of . Re-imagining Delhi .The governance structure is in need of a medicine for Indian patients drastic remake More mixed events, please .Before eviction .States must quickly determine if procedural lapses .If the Hopman Cup gets the axe, it will be a loss for the sport deprived forest-dwellers of their rights . Pre-poll gambit Reduction in rates brings cheer to real estate sector, but unsettles the GST regime
The correct prescription GS PAPER 2 Health 6
.Amid a slew of conflicting judicial decisions from different High Courts, the legality of e-pharmacies continues to be questioned by various trade associations such as the All India Organisation of Chemists and Druggists (AIOCD) . It represents 8.4 lakh pharmacists who run the brick and mortar pharmacies in neighbourhoods across India. E-pharmacies, which operate through websites or smartphone apps on the Internet, offer medicines for sale at a discount of at least 20% when compared to traditional pharmacists, with the added convenience of home delivery of medicines to one's doorstep. For scheduled drugs, patients can submit photographs of prescriptions while placing orders. . Despite operating in India for at least four years now, the legal status of these e-pharmacies is not clear because the government is yet to notify into law draft rules that it published in 2018.
The fiercest opponents of e-pharmacies are trade associations of existing pharmacists and chemists. They argue that their livelihoods are threatened by venture capital backed e-pharmacies and that jobs of thousands are on the line. Apart from these obvious arguments, these trade associations also spin imaginary tales of how e-pharmacies will open the door to drug abuse and also the sale of sub-standard or counterfeit drugs, thereby threatening public health. There is enough evidence on record to demonstrate how existing pharmacies contribute generously to drug abuse and sale of sub- standard medicine. There is no reason to suspect that e-pharmacies are going to worsen the situation in anyway
A case of cartelisation The more prudent way of looking at the entry of e-pharmacies is competition and the resultant effect it will have on lowering the price of medicine for Indian patients. Viewed from this perspective, there is virtually no doubt that e pharmacies should be allowed to operate because the history of India's trade associations of pharmacists is one of rampant, unabashed cartelisation that has resulted in an artificial inflation of medicine prices.
In a fully functional, competitive market, pharmacists would compete with each other for business. This competition could happen in the form of discounts or improving operational efficiency. For example, if two retailers buy a medicine from a wholesaler at 50 and the maximum retail price of the drug is *75, they are free to sell it at R70 or 65 or even 51. The seller with the lower price gets more customers and can make more profits. However, if both sellers enter into an agreement with each other to sell the drug at R75 and they also clearly define the geographical area within which they are operating, they both make higher profits but at the cost of the patient who now has to pay higher prices.
.This practice of two competitors c area of operation is called cartelisation, and is illegal under India's Competition Act. .The premise of this law is that a free market is efficient only if all sellers are competing with each other to offer the lowest price to the customer. Over the last decade, the Competition Commission of India (CCI) has had to deal with several complaints alleging that trade associations of pharmacists are providing platforms for cartelisation where pharmacists are basically rigging the market. . In simple terms, this means that pharmacists, who should otherwise be competing with each other to offer lower prices for their customers, prefer to enter into agreements with each other to fix the price at which they will sell medicines to patients. Once all parties are on the same page, there is no reason to compete with each other and reduce prices.
Another barrier .A second, more insidious strategy is the practice of requiring pharmaceutical companies to apply for a no-objection-certificate (NOC) from the regional trade association before they appoint new stockists in a region to sell a particular drug. . This has the effect of artificially restricting competition in certairn markets because more stockists mean more competition. By creating such artificial, extra-legal barriers to the free trade of medicines within India, these trade associations create huge distortions in the Indian market It is suspected that these practices continue despite multiple restraining orders by the CCl.
In its recent policy note on Making markets work for affordable healthcare", published in October 2018, the CCI noted, "One major factor that contributes to high drug prices in India is the unreasonably high trade margins." . One of the culprits for this phenomenon identified by the CCI was "self-regulation by trade associations [which] also contributes towards high margins as these trade associations control the entire drug distribution system in a manner that mutes competition".
One of the solutions proposed by the CCI was encouraging more e pharmacies. As stated by the CCl in its policy note, "Electronic trading of m via online platforms, with appropriate regulatory safeguards, can bring in transparency and spur price competition among platforms and among retailers, as has been witnessed in other product segments." Where the state has failed, it is possible that venture capitalist backed e-pharmacists will succeed in bringing back competition to the retail drug markets in India. There is no reason for India to continue indulging trade associations that have no taste for competition or fair business practices.
The Supreme Court's order to evict, over the next five months, occupants of forest lands who failed to make a successful claim for tenure under the Forest Rights Act, 2006, has once again highlighted the dilemma of reconciling inalienable tribal rights with biodiversity conservation. When the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act was passed, it was with the wholly welfarist goal of making these communities partners in conservation. They would be stewards of forests that have shrunk and become fragmented over the decades.
Claims for tenure under the Forest Rights Act must therefore satisfy the primary test of whether they are legally unimpeachable, and even if they are, whether they would impose additional pressures on forests and wildlife. The answer in many areas may lie in resettlement. . In some well-documented cases, such as in the Western Ghats, alternative land and cash compensation convinced tribals to move out of core areas. .One example is that of the Nagarahole National Park, where the outcome has been good for both people and wildlife, as evidenced by the recovery of tiger density over three decades.
Coalition of the concerned GS PAPER 3 Security challenges and their management
In the wake of the Pulwama attack on February 14, the government has iterated once again its plan for the "diplomatic isolation" of Pakistan. The idea, which was first articulated after the 2016 Uri attacks, is a non- starter, as was underlined by the visit of the Saudi Crown Prince Mohammad Bin Salman to both countries earlier this month, just a few days after Pulwama. In Pakistan, the Prince called himself "Pakistan's Ambassador" in his country, and issued a joint statement praising Pakistan for its fight against terrorism. Clearly, a more considered diplomatic strategy, less full of rhetoric
Beyond isolation To begin with, the government would do better to repackage its idea of "isolating Pakistan" into one of building a more inclusive coalition against terrorism emanating from Pakistan In the past couple of weeks alone, Iran and Afghanistan have faced terror attacks on their security forces along the border with Pakistan and several other countries, which have also faced such attacks or see the presence of Pakistan-based groups on their soil, would be willing to join ranks on this. The truth is, in today's interconnected world, it is vainglorious to expect countries to join a unilateral plan for isolation
- Despite the US's considerable might, thas been unable to get most countries, including India, to sever ties with Iran and North Korea, for example. The impact of such a campaign is also doubtful: after years of trying to isolate North Korea, the U.S. is pursuing talks with its leader. .While isolation might work as a campaign slogan for domestic audiences, it is quickly rebuffed each time a country engages with the nation one is trying to isolate. An inclusive coalition is more likely to move nations at the global stage as well. .The success of the efforts led by the U.S. and other countries to 'grey list' Pakistan at the Financial Action Task Force or of French efforts for a United Nations Security Council statement on Pulwama
It remains to be seen how much countries trying to negotiate with the Taliban will need Pakistan's leverage to make progress on those talks. It remains to be seen how much countries trying to negotiate wit!h U.S. President Donald Trump sees them as the precursor for plans to pull out most troops in combat in Afghanistan before his re-election bid for 2020
. In this regard, mere statements and bans have not worked for more than two decades, and the government must consider other options, especially with the countries that carry the most leverage and access in Pakistan: China, the U.S. and Saudi Arabia. It is puzzling that the U.S. has been able to carry out drone strikes on a whole host of terror group leaders on Pakistan's western front, but never once targeted camps and infrastructure belonging to the JeM and the LeT, despite their well-established links to al-Qaeda. India must also press the U.S. to place travel sanctions on specific entities in the Pakistani military establishment unless visible action is taken against the JeM, whose leaders hold public rallies and issue videos threatening India.
Steady dialogue Finally, India must look to its own actions on the diplomatic front with Pakistan. Calling off a formal dialogue process for more than a decadee has clearly yielded no desired outcome. South Asia as a region, and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) process too have suffered the consequences of this disengagement, without yielding any desired outcomes. . A measured, steady and non-political level of dialogue is a more effective way of impressing India's determination to root out terrorism than the present on-again, off-again policy. .As the nation prepares for a possible military response to the Pulwama attack, it is important that New Delhi consider its diplomatic response carefully, particularly taking into account both the historical and regional context of its moves.
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