PSLV which stands for Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle is India’s third-generation launch system. It is the nation’s first liquid-staged launch vehicle. PSLV emerged as India’s reliable and flexible workhorse launch vehicle after its first successful launch in October 1994, with 39 successful launches in a row by June 2017. Between 1994 and 2017, the vehicle launched 48 Indian spacecraft and 209 satellites for international customers. Furthermore, the vehicle officially deployed two spacecraft to the Moon and Mars, Chandrayaan-1 in 2008 and Mars Orbiter Spacecraft in 2013. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) created and operated the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), an expendable medium-lift launch vehicle (ISRO).
Variations on the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
ISRO developed five PSLV models with payload sizes varying from 600 kilogrammes in low earth orbit (LEO) to 1,900 kilogrammes in a sun-synchronous orbit (SSO). The PSLV is a normal type capable of launching 1,678kg of payload to a distance of 622 kilometres into SSO (sun-synchronous orbit).
PSLV (1), PSLV (2), and PSLV (3) are three sub-variants.
PSLV launch vehicle design
The PSLV was supposed to be 450 metres tall with a diameter of 2.8 metres. It has an inertial guidance system to perform navigation, guiding, and altitude control missions.
The vehicle’s pitch and yaw are controlled during the solid booster’s thrust phase by interposing aqueous strontium perchlorate solution in the nozzle to establish a secondary injection thrust vector control system (SITVC), which regulates the roll amplification.
The vehicle additionally has two cylindrical aluminium tanks to store the injected fuel attached to the solid rocket boosters.
During the first stage, roll control thrusters (RCT) too were fitted for roll control.
PSLV – XL Launching Description
- At T+0, the PS1 fires, producing 4846 kN of thrust
- Four of the six boosters ignite on the ground within T+1, each delivering 703 kN of thrust. The combination propelling of the PSOMs and the PS1 generates 7658 kN of total thrust
- The last two lighted boosters are air-lit around T+23/26, bringing the rocket to its peak thrust potential
- The first four ground-lit PSOMs have spent fuel and are presently separating and falling into the ocean at T+1:10. The PS1 and the remaining two PSOMs continue to burn
- The last two PSOMs finish their 70-second burn and separate at T+1:35, placing the missile in a Core-Alone configuration
- The PS1 separates at T+1:50, having completed its 110-second burn and the Vikas Engine within the PS2 fires
- Stage two fires with around 130 seconds before shutting down and separating at T+4 minutes
- Stage three, a rocket motor launcher, burns for 80 seconds before coasting for the rest of the period until it separates, and the fourth stage fires to offer the rocket a big attempt into orbit about T+8/10 minutes
- The duration of the 4th stage burn varies greatly depending on the size and amount of payloads, although it normally lasts around 500 seconds. Around T+16/18 minutes, the 4th stage may shut down, tried to follow the Payload Deployment
PSLV Research and Development
PSLV was developed at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) in Kerala in the early 1990s. The PSLV had its first flight on September 20, 1993, but still, the launch mission failed due to an altitude control fault in the second and third stages.
- In October 1994, the PSLV successfully launched the IRS-P2 satellite into SSO for the first time. The launch took place from Sriharikota’s SHAR launch centre. 1996, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 were all excellent launches.
- The PSLV was India’s most popular rocket launcher for launch vehicles, particularly the LEO and Chandrayaan programmes.
- On July 15, 2011, ISRO launched the GSAT-12 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre on a PSLV-C17 rocket.
- In October 2011, the Megha-Tropiques project was launched on the payload of PSLV-C18 to explore the tropical atmosphere. In April 2012, the PSLV-C19 launched the RISAT-1 satellite.
- In September 2012, PSLV-C21 launched the SPOT 6 satellite and PROITERES, a Japanese nanosatellite.
- In February 2013, the PSLV-C20, a derivative of the PSLV-CA, released the Indo-French satellite SARAL and six commercial payload satellites. ISRO’s 23rd PSLV mission was launched with the launch of SARAL.
On October 22, 2008, the Satish Dhawan Space Centre on Sriharikota Island, Andhra Pradesh, launched the 590-kg (1,300-pound) Chandrayaan-1 using a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. The probe was then launched into an elliptical polar orbit around the Moon, measuring 504 kilometres (312 miles) at its closest approach and 7,502 kilometres (4,651 miles) at its farthest.
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