First Information Report is recorded at the police station by the officer who is present on duty and can be recorded on behalf of the victim or by a person against someone whom one may find guilty.
As there are so many criminal cases occurring around us, it is important to seek the help of police officials and file a case against the criminal to stop the chain. Many such crimes are occurring, one being a cognizable crime. A cognizable crime is a type of crime that is serious and needs to be reported to the officials. In such a case, a police officer has the liberty of arresting the accused without producing any warrant to him.
Types of Crime
There are mainly two types of crime or offences:
- Cognizable Crime: A cognizable crime is a crime that is serious and needs immediate action. The officer in charge can register the case against the criminal on behalf of the victim and may even take the step of arresting him without producing any warrant. Examples of Cognizable crimes are Murder, rape, dowry, etc. Cases registered under this category are non-bailable.
- Non-Cognizable Crime: Non-Cognizable crime is a type of crime that is not so serious and may or may not require the immediate attention of police officers. However, the police officer needs to have a warrant to arrest such cases. Examples of non-cognizable crimes are Forgery, defamation, etc. Bail can be granted by the court in these types of cases.
Reports that cannot be counted as an FIR
- When a statement for an FIR is recorded after the beginning of the investigation in the case.
- When an FIR is not reported by the victim immediately, all the witnesses produced in the case have been questioned before the report.
- FIR filed several days after the progress in the case has been made.
- Give the police officer or the magistrate information on the mobile phone.
Procedure for filing an FIR
The whole procedure of filing an FIR has been given in the Criminal Section Code under Section no 154. The procedure is as below:
- Written FIR: The procedure of filing an FIR is to report at the nearby police station at the earliest possible. The copy of the written FIR should be thoroughly checked to see if the information is written correctly and then signed to have the proof.
- Reading the FIR: The victim lodging the complaint against the accused has the right to ask the officials to read out the FIR to him/her to avoid any misunderstandings.
- Verifying the FIR: Sometimes, wrong information gets communicated in case of fear or hurry. It is important to check the information provided to avoid any miscommunications.
- Sign the FIR: After reading and going through the filed FIR, it is important to sign it because it can be of no use without the signature, and no actions might be taken. If a person cannot write, a person can use his left thumb to provide his thumb impressions on the paper.
Importance of FIR
Many cases go unreported because of the fear of the criminals, and it gives more strength to the criminals. An FIR is the first step in protecting society from the crimes as it gives way to the actions of the police officials. An FIR is the first step towards seeking justice as it is only then an officer can catch a criminal and give relief to the victim. It is the first official statement recorded against the accused.
How do I know if I can lodge an FIR?
There are various provisions provided to find an FIR in cognizable crimes. One can lodge an FIR when:
- You are a victim, and the crime has been committed with you.
- You have seen a crime happening and feel the need to report it.
- You know the victim and are filing it on behalf of him owing to his sense of fear of being known.
- A police officer has seen the crime happening in front of him. For example, an SHO can file a complaint all by himself against the criminal being the eyewitness to the crime.
Also see: UPSC Exam Paper
One should not hesitate from filing an FIR as it can help him and society get rid of heinous crimes committed in the daylight. It’s a simple process and is highly confidential.