# GATE Syllabus for Agricultural Engineering (AG)

The GATE 2022 syllabi include multiple papers. Here is the detailed GATE Syllabus for Agricultural Engineering.

The complete syllabus of Agricultural Engineering for GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering)  examination 2022 is provided below. There are seven sections in all, with various topics under each section.

## Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

### Linear Algebra:

• Eigenvalues And Eigenvectors
• Matrices And Determinants
• Linear And Orthogonal Transformations
• Caley Hamilton Theorem
• Solutions Of Linear Equations

### Calculus:

• Partial derivatives
• Limit, continuity and differentiability
• Maxima and minima of function with several independent variables
• Taylor and MacLaurin series
• Sequences and Series – infinite series, tests for convergence
• Homogeneous function – Total differentiation, Euler’s theorem on homogeneous functions
• Fourier

### Vector Calculus:

• Scalar and vector point functions
• Vector differentiation
• Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems
• Vector differential operators – del, gradient
• Divergence and curl
• Physical interpretations-line, surface and volume integrals

### Differential Equations:

• Homogeneous differential equations
• Linear and non-linear first order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE)
• Laplace transforms and their inverse
• Partial Differential Equations – Laplace, heat and wave equations
• Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients

### Probability And Statistics:

• Random variables
• Mean, median, mode and standard deviation
• Correlation and regression analysis
• Poisson, normal and binomial distributions

### Numerical Methods:

• Numerical integration – trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule
• Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations
• Numerical solutions of ODEs

## Section 2: Farm Machinery

### Machine Design:

• Overload safety devices used in farm machinery
• Design and selection of machine elements – gears, pulleys, chains and sprockets and belts
• Measurement of force, stress, torque, speed, displacement and acceleration on machine elements – shafts, couplings, keys, bearings and knuckle joints

### Farm Machinery:

• Soil tillage
• Hitch systems and hitching of tillage implements
• Forces acting on a tillage tool
• Functional requirements, principles of working, construction and operation of manual,
• Animal and power operated equipment for tillage, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, intercultivation, spraying, mowing, chaff cutting, harvesting and threshing calculation of performance parameters – field capacity, efficiency, application rate and losses
• Cost analysis of implements and tractors

## Section 3: Farm Power

### Sources Of Power:

• Bio-fuels
• Sources of power on the farm – human, animal, mechanical, electrical, wind, solar and biomass

### Farm Power:

• Thermodynamic principles of I.C. engines
• Engine components
• I.C. engine cycles
• Lubricants and their properties
• I.C. engine systems – fuel, cooling, lubrication, ignition, electrical, intake and exhaust
• Power efficiencies and measurement
• Selection, operation, maintenance and repair of I.C. engines
• Performance index, cost analysis of implements and tractors
• Fuels and combustion
• Calculation of power, torque, fuel consumption, heat load and power losses

### Tractors and Power tillers

• Type, selection, maintenance, and repair of tractors and power tillers
• Power transmission systems – gear trains, differential, final drives and power take-off
• Tractor clutches and brakes
• Tractor tests and performance
• Human engineering and safety considerations in design of tractor and agricultural implements
• Traction theory
• Steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors
• Mechanics of tractor chassis

## Section 4: Soil and Water Conservation Engineering

### Fluid Mechanics:

• Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids
• Continuity equation, kinematics and dynamics of flow
• Hydrostatic pressure and its measurement
• Laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, Darcy-Weisbach and Hazen-Williams equations, Moody’s diagram
• Flow in open channels, dimensional analysis – concepts of geometric dimensionless numbers
• Bernoulli’s theorem
• Flow through orifices, weirs and notches

### Soil Mechanics:

• Engineering properties of soils
• Index properties of soils
• Fundamental definitions and relationships
• Shear strength, Mohr’s circle of stress, active and passive earth pressures
• Permeability and seepage analysis
• Stability of slopes, Terzaghi’s one dimensional soil consolidation theory

### Hydrology:

• Hydrological cycle and measurement of its components
• Analysis of precipitation data
• Meteorological parameters and their measurement
• Hydrograph analysis, unit hydrograph theory and application
• Flood routing, hydrological reservoir and channel routing, Infiltration – indices and equations, drought and its classification
• Runoff estimation
• Streamflow measurement

### Surveying And Leveling:

• Measurement of distance and area
• Chain surveying, methods of traversing
• Theodolite traversing
• Total station, introduction to GPS survey, computation of areas and volume
• Types of leveling
• Instruments for surveying and leveling
• Measurement of angles and bearings, plane table surveying
• Contouring

### Soil And Water Erosion:

• Mechanics of soil erosion – wind and water erosion
• Soil loss estimation
• Soil erosion types, factors affecting erosion
• Terraces and bunds
• Gully control structures, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways
• Earthen dams
• Vegetative waterways
• Biological and engineering measures to control erosion

### Watershed Management:

• Water budgeting in watershed, rainwater harvesting, check dams and farm ponds
• Watershed characterization and land use capability classification

## Section 5: Irrigation and Drainage Engineering

### Soil-Water-Plant Relationship:

• Water requirement of crops
• Measurement of infiltration, soil moisture and irrigation water infiltration
• Consumptive use and evapotranspiration

### Irrigation Water Conveyance And Application Methods:

• Design of irrigation channels and underground pipelines
• Surface, sprinkler and micro irrigation methods, design and evaluation of irrigation methods
• Irrigation scheduling
• Irrigation efficiencies

### Agricultural Drainage:

• Planning, design, and layout of surface and sub-surface drainage systems
• Drainage coefficient
• Non-conventional drainage system
• Irrigation and drainage water quality and reuse
• Leaching requirement and salinity control

### Groundwater Hydrology:

• Darcy’s Law, steady and unsteady flow in confined and unconfined aquifers, groundwater exploration techniques
• Groundwater occurrence
• Overview of groundwater recharge estimation and artificial recharge techniques

### Wells And Pumps:

• Types of wells, steady flow through wells
• Classification of pumps
• Pump characteristics
• Design and construction of water wells
• Pump selection and installation

## Section 6: Agricultural Process Engineering

### Engineering properties of agriculture produce

• Physical, thermal, frictional, rheological and electrical properties

### Evaporation and Drying

• Hydrothermal treatments
• Concentration and drying of liquid foods – evaporators, tray, drum and spray dryers
• Psychrometry – properties of air-water vapor mixture
• Drying kinetics
• Drying and milling of cereals, pulses and oilseeds

### Size Reduction and Material Handling

• Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction of agriculture produce
• Size separation by screening
• Particle size analysis for comminuted solids
• Centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and gases
• Effectiveness of separation
• Filtration and membrane separation
• Fluidization of granular solids-pneumatic, bucket, screw and belt conveying
• Homogenization

### Processing of Agriculture Produce

• Value addition of agriculture produce
• Processing of seeds, spices, fruits and vegetables

### Storage Systems:

• Perishable food storage, godowns, bins and grain silos, packaging material and machines
• Controlled and modified atmosphere storage