Deepanshu Singh is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
YSIS OF NEWSPAPERS IN LESS THAN 10 MINUT Presented B 8th January,2017 9D chrome
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EDITORIALS COVERED IN TODAY'S LESSON Economic and Political Weekly (EPW) - Understanding Open Defecation in Rural India e flindu -Sri Lanka's next big fight The Hindu " India's refusal to scale up bedaquiline is really the world's problem India's refusal to scale up bedaquili ne is really the world's problem
QUESTIONS FOR ANSWER WRITING PRACTICE " What can be done change male attitudes towards sexual violence against women?. Comment.
EPW: UNDERSTANDING OPEN DEFECATION IN RURAL INDIA (GS-1/2) Study Why so many rural Indians defecate in the open rather than use affordable pit latrines? And how Future rural sanitation programmes must address these issues o Hard facts-2011 Census found that 70% of rural households do not have a toilet or latrine GOI 2012c-worse than rural sub-Saharan Africa In rural Bangladesh, only 5% of people defecate in the open. In rural China, 2% of people defecate in the open (UNICEF and WHO 2012) M N Srinivas points out in The Remembered Village, village children learn what--and who is polluting from a very early age Adverse consequences of Open Defecation Adverse consequences of Open ID o Spreads bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, including diarrhoea, polio, cholera and hookworm and is an important cause of child stunting (Spears 2013) o Also a classic example of a "negative externality" in which one person's behaviour hurts other people. o Makes women vulnerable to sexual assaults Study points out-that widespread open defecation in rural India is on account of beliefs, values, and norms about purity, pollution, caste, and untouchability- rather than attributable to relative material or educational deprivation
Contd. Pg-2 o Findings and reasons for high rates of Open defecation- o Patriarchy- seen as promoting purity and strength (masculinity), particularly by men, who typically decide how money is spent in rural households. o Biggest barrier- Pit emptying- equate manual pit emptying with scavenging and other degrading forms of labour traditionally done by Dalits., as Affordable latrines, such as those recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and subsidised by the Indian government, have pits that need to be emptied manually o Lack of water is not to blame for India's open defecation rates is the fact that many households that have piped water nevertheless defecate in the open. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2005) found that only about a fifth of rural Indian households that do not defecate in the open use a pit latrine. (latrines built under the Total Sanitation Campaign, the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, and the Swachh Bharat Mission are pit latrines.) o SQUAT- (Sanitation Quality, Use, Access and Trends) Surprisingly- open defecation is not only socially acceptable in places where almost everyone does it, it is seen as a wholesome activity that is associated with health, strength, and masculine vigour and a chance of socialization for women who feel bounded in their homes- reinforces this practice! o words "dirty" and "clean" are ritual concepts as well as physical ones-misconceptions- most see latrines as pollating in a ritual sense, no matter how physicall clean they are kept distaste for latrines has to do with the imbortance of maintaining purit in the home. IVWhen talk about defecating in the oben str od to walk far ome betore derecatin
Contd. Pg-3 o High Costs of Large Pit latrines- Swachh Bharat Mission subsidises latrines at 12,000, a Bangladeshi pit latrine costs only about 3,000. Despite this, people refer to Indian government latrines as "temporary" "fake," or kaccha-large pits are considered as an asset to wealthy rural family o Most people wrongly believe that government-provided soak pits will fill up in a matter of months, rather than years, and will require frequent emptying. Mechanical emptying of these pits is impractical because the pit is designed for water to seep out and for faeces to become compacted- not possible through-Sewage tracks. o Govt recommends- pit be left unused for 6 months to decompose- Under the law, hiring someone to empty a decomposed pit is not considered manual scavenging. The need to allow pits to decompose before emptying means that each latrine needs two pits ( only 2.5% have two pits) o Associated with Untouchability- Manual Scavenging o Women's attitudes-Notion of Sexual assault on women-study points-43% reported molestation attempt while going o women reject affordable latrines for the same reasons that men do: they, too, are concerned about ritual pollution o distracts policy makers to address the real issue of caste-based social divisons- common slogan in Uttar Pradesh is to defecate, while, 7.6% reported the same while going to a market! and pit-emptying "daughters-in-law and daughters should not go outside, make a toilet in your bouse- stifling for women, and also impression that latrine sa na se
Contd. Pg-4 o Religion based evidences-(Hindus and Muslims)- India's 2005 NFHS finds that rural Muslim households are 19 percentage points less likely to defecate in the open than rural Hindu households, despite the fact that they are poorer on average Geruso and Spears 2015)- also show that Muslims are also more likely to use the latrines that they own- strong untouchability notion among Hindus o However-not better than other parts of the World as rural Indian Muslims live amongst a Hindu majority for whom open defecation is normative, and for whom affordable latrines are counternormative Suggested measures for the Government and communit o Rural Sanitation Policy Must Address Untouchability-Manual scavenging law not implemented strictly-made illegal nt as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act in some states in 1993, and in all states in 2013-not Prohibition of Employme a single person has been convicted for hiring a manual scavenger since the law took effect (Hindu 2013) Economic growth-mar eventually allow more rural households to slow v switch from open de ecation to septic tanks arge pits. o More spending per household on large pit latrines- under the Swachh Bharat Mission and still see a net increase in the government budget, due to future increases in human capital and tax revenues resulting from a healthier population (Lawson and Spears-2016) o Educating and publicizing- Govt and health care workers- Anganwadi o Reforming Govt sectors-Indian Railways flout the law by hiring Dalits to do dangerous and demeaning work, like unblocking sewers etc. Social attitudes-Upper caste/ anganwadi workers should lead by example-emptying pits on their own-annihilation of caste- Both Ambedkar and Gandhi advocated that upper caste people do their own dirty work as a step towards dismantling the caste system
TH:- Sri Lanka's next big fight (GS-2/3) HowSn lankais dealingwith Cbronic KidneyDisease of Unknown Etiology (CKDs) o Why Sri-Lanka is in the international health scenario? 1. The International Society of Nephrologists ISN) recently honouredSnLankan Prest entMarthm ala n senator his "extraordinary contribution" to the fight against Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology (CKDu) 2 Recently,WHO declared Sri Lanka"Malana-tree" Why Sri-Lanka is concerned about CKDu? 1.20,828 patients and 5000 deaths per year due to CKDu, so it is a "National Disaster" 2.CKDuis a ''silent cond rior" means only in the nnal stages of the disease you will come to know that you are having the diseases "It is like this- when you drive a car, you won't feel the petrol running out until the vehicle stops, unless you check periodically" 3.Sn-Lanka's President is from one of the affected provinces.<North Central Province> o What they found out so far about CKDu? It was reported first from Central America-Sugarcane farming areas Then in Srilanka-agricultural areas o In India from Andbra Pradesb-agricultural areas So it has a link with agriculture.
TH:- Sri Lanka's next big fight (GS-2/3) How Sri Lanka is dealing with it? P 1.The President has setup a presidential task force 2.ISN Gardiner Fund (ISN.GF) to fight the disease globally too. 3 Expert ne brologists and Daysts and transplantation are needed or the treatment,but SnLanka needs atleast 1000 o 3.Expert nephrologists and Diahsis and transplantation are needed for the treatment, but Sri Lanka needs atleast 1000 nephrologists. 4 Strengthening its CKDu response mechanisms (COMMIA),so 400 Dialysis machines at present in the country. o What more can be done and how to prevent it? o There is not a proven fact that agrochemicals and contaminated water could be likely causes So government is focusing on providing good quality drinking water, o raising awareness about the risk of dehydration and o ensuring supervised use of agrochemicals and fertilisers. Public health workers are getting trained for it Infrastructure is being improved for it.