# Biomedical Engineering (BM)

Check out the latest syllabus of Biomedical Engineering in GATE 2022. All sections, topics and sub-topics have been detailed.

Biomedical Engineering is one of the subject papers offered in the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) examination. Candidates opting for this subject may check out the detailed syllabus below. Other than Engineering Mathematics, the Biomedical Engineering (Code: BM) paper for GATE 2022 includes a variety of topics and sub-topics.

## Linear algebra:

• Eigenvectors and eigenvalues, Systems of linear equations, Matrix algebra

## Calculus:

• Stokes, Gauss and green’s theorem, Line, Surface and volume integrals, Vector identities, Fourier series, Multiple integrals, Maxima and minima, Partial derivatives, Theorems of integral calculus, Mean value theorems

## Differential equations:

• First order linear and nonlinear differential equations, higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of separation of variables, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, initial and boundary value problems, solution of partial differential equations.

## Analysis of complex variables:

• Residue theorem, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, Cauchy’s integral theorem and Integral formula, Analytic functions

## Probability and statistics:

• Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and standard deviation, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and binomial distributions. Tests of Significance, statistical power analysis, and sample size estimation. Linear Regression and correlation analysis;

## Numerical methods:

• Numerical integration, Iterative methods for solving differential equations, Numerical solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, Matrix inversion

## Electrical circuits:

• Voltage and current sources – independent, dependent, ideal and practical; v-i relationships of resistor, inductor and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with dc excitation; Kirchoff’s laws, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems; Peak, average and rms values of ac quantities; apparent, active and reactive powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements, Bode plot.
• ## Signals and systems:

• Continuous and Discrete Signal and Systems – Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Sampling theorem; Laplace and Fourier transforms; impulse response of systems; transfer function, frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems, convolution, correlation. Discrete time systems – impulse response, frequency response, DFT, Z – transform; basics of IIR and FIR filters.
• ## Analog and digital electronics:

• Basic characteristics and applications of diode, BJT and MOSFET; Characteristics and applications of operational amplifiers – difference amplifier, adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, instrumentation amplifier, buffer, filters and waveform generators. Number systems, Boolean algebra; combinational logic circuits – arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, encoder/decoder, MUX/DEMUX, multi-vibrators; Sequential circuits – latches and flip flops, state diagrams, shift registers and counters; Principles of ADC and DAC; Microprocessor- architecture, interfacing memory and input- output devices.

• ## Measurements and control systems:

• SI units, systematic and random errors in measurement, expression of uncertainty -accuracy and precision index, propagation of errors; PMMC, MI and dynamometer type instruments; dc potentiometer; bridges for measurement of R, L and C, Q-meter. Basics of control system – transfer function.

• ## Sensors and bio-instrumentation:

• Sensors – resistive, capacitive, inductive, piezoelectric, Hall effect, electro chemical, optical; Sensor signal conditioning circuits; application of LASER in sensing and therapy. Origin of biopotentials and their measurement techniques – ECG, EEG, EMG, ERG, EOG, GSR, PCG, Principles of measuring blood pressure, body temperature, volume and flow in arteries, veins and tissues, respiratory measurements and cardiac output measurement. Operating principle of medical equipment – sphygmomanometer, ventilator, cardiac pacemaker, defibrillator, pulse oximeter, hemodialyzer Electrical Isolation (optical and electrical) and Safety of Biomedical Instruments.

• ## Human anatomy and physiology:

• Basics of organ systems – musculoskeletal, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, endocrine, nervous, gastrointestinal and reproductive; Homeostasis; Basics of cell, types of tissues and organ systems
• ## Medical imaging systems:

• Basic physics, Instrumentation and image formation techniques in medical imaging modalities such as X-Ray, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Computed Tomography, Positron Emission Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound
• ## Biomechanics:

• Kinematics of muscles and joints – free-body diagrams and equilibrium, forces and stresses in joints, biomechanical analysis of joints, Gait analysis; Hard Tissues – Definition of Stress and Strain, Deformation Mechanics, structure and mechanical properties of bone – cortical and cancellous bones; Soft Tissues – Structure, functions, material properties, viscoelastic properties, Maxwell & Voight models; Biofluid mechanics – Flow properties of blood in the intact human cardiovascular system.

• Biomaterials: Basic properties of biomaterials – Metallic, Ceramic, Polymeric and Composite; Fundamental characteristics of implants – biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability; Basics of drug delivery; Basics of tissue engineering. Biomaterial characterization techniques – Rheology, Atomic Force Microscopy, Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.