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Marxism (in Hindi)
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In Practice, Marxists vary enormously in their radicalism and their beliefs.

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  1. Marxism

  2. Marx and Engels adopt a collectivistand conflict-oriented view ofpolitics. Marx says "The philosophers have only interpreted the world di point is to change it' Marx and Engels published extensive!ynot onlyon the nature ofcontemporary capitalism, but also on the transition from feudalism to capitalism and on ancient and oriental societies. . In the more theoretical writings of Marx and Engels 'the dialectic' of Hegel is turned upon its head By placing nineteenth-century capitalism in perspective as one of several stages of history which inevitably lead on to new, higher, stages, Hegel's idea of a logic of history is adopted. But instead ofthe Ideal manifesting itselfprogressivelythrough history, ideas (ideology) are seen as reflecting the underlying material 'means of production.

  3. Leninism & Stalinism

  4. Leninism & Stalinism In the twentieth century the most obvious heirs to Marx have been the . aders of the former Soviet Union. The most ideologically creative and politically influential of these were Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin. Marx and Engels envisaged socialist revolution taking place in the most developed capitalist countries through mass action by trade unions and democratic socialist organisations. Lenin and Stalin adapted the theory to suit the needs of a conspiratorial revolutionary organisation fighting an autocratic empire in which the majority of the population were still peasants . Lenin developed Marx's concept of the dictatorship of the proletariat to mean 'the organization of the advanced guard of the oppressed as the ruling class, for the purpose of crushing the oppressors The apparent success of the Soviet regime in building a strong industrialised state capable of defeating Nazi Germany from a previously underdeveloped peasant economyled to the imitation of the regime in numerous East European countries, China, the Far East and Cuba. .


  6. Maoism Maoism is the application of Marxism-Leninism on the peculiar Chinese conditions. Unlike the earlier forms of Marxism-Leninism, Maoism under the Chinese Conditions, soughtto have nationalist revolution followed by followed by the Bourgeoise and thereafter the proletarian revolution. Hence it was the people's revolution, The Communist Party of China(CPC) guiding the people. Mao focused on the peasantry as the main revolutionary force which Maoism asserted that in a semi-feudal and semi-colonial society like China, agrarian revolution is the priority In Maoist thought, 'political power comes from the barrel ofthe gun, and the peasantry can be mobilised to undertake a 'people's war' of armed struggle involving guerrilla warfare .