SOCIALISM AND IT'S VARIANT
In Marxian theory and official communist language, socialism denotes a social and economic system that is supposed to be the transitional stage between Capitalism and (full) Communism. Secondly, Socialism as an ideology and as an tendency stands for 1. An egalitarian society- genuine liberty with reasonable equality 2. The state as an administrator-designed to guarantee individual entitlements and to distribute benefits among the citizens accordingly. 3. The elimination of systems of control abolition of class system where people exert control (against private property
EVOLUTIONARY SOCIALISM Eduard Bernstein rejected the basic postulates of Marx and instead advocated the,- 1. Empowering of the trade union. 2. Pressurising capitalists, to yield to workers' demand. 3. Pressurising democrats to weaken capitalism and empower working class He never thought of capitalism as a system of class oppression, rather he saw it as a system with a human face where the capitalists cared for the workers. In his opinion a movement was needed to build pressure on the capitalists, a process which could be achieved peacefully. He believed that neither the capitalism was so weak nor the working class so strong to launch a revolution He followed a revisionist stance, hence an adveeate of evolutiona
SYNDICALISM Refers to the set of ideas, tendencies, and movements which asserts to transform the capitalist society through the organised working class. It lays emphasis on working class organisation. Syndicalism means trade unionism' Advocates- Georges Sorel & Hubert Lagardelle, Arturo Labrado Regard the State as 'bourgeois' and oppose it. Seek to promote class solidarity. Favour Strikes, sabotage, destruction of Machinery, boycott & label.
FABIANISM Fabian is a small but influential group of British Socialist, founded in 1883 under the influence of Professor Thomas Davidson- who looked to ethical reforms & utopian community making rather than to political action, for the regeneration of the society. Edward Pease, George Bernard Shaw, GDH Cole, Sidney Webb were some of the famous Personalities of this Fabian Society. The Society became famous with the publication of the Fabian essays in 1889 by Shaw, Annie Besant, Graham Wallas etc. This Socialism regards transition from Capitalism to socialism as a gradual process; it sees the middle class as a group that can be utilized in developing the techniques of administration; they favour rousing of the social conscience of the community in favour of the socialist ideal. Fabians were committed Socialists and they wanted it to be established by gradual reforms within the law with the state ownership of major industries.
GUILD SOCIALISM It is apolitical movement which advocates workers' control over industries through trade related Guilds. Originated in Britain and was influential in the first quarter of the 20th CE Rocksow describes guild Socialism as "the intellectual child of English Fabianism and French Syndicalism" Hallowell writes, "Guild Socialism was and remains a kind of anaemic version of French Syndicalism". It is a halfway between syndicalism & collectivism. The chief advocates of guild socialism are AJ. Penty, AR. Orage,S.G. Honbson. .Chief Characteristics are,- wage system to be abolished; Self-Government to be established in industry thru a system of National guilds; the state to play a limited role ; democracy to be brought first in economic field, and then to political field. The guild socialists' methods are, in nature, peaceful and constitutional.
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