Liberty Imagine a Women is driving a Car.
Isaiah Berlin : Negative & Positive Liberty O In the first case(-ve) freedom seems to be a mere absence of something (i.e., of obstacles', 'barriers', 'constraints' or 'interference from others'), Whereas in the second case freedom seems to require the presence of something (i. e, of control,'self-mastery', 'self-determination' or 'self-realisation'). O Negative liberty is often glossed as the absence of coercion, where coercion is understood as the deliberate interference of other agents. O Negative Liberty is "freedom from.", while Positive Liberty is "Freedom to" O In a well-known critique of Berlin's essay, the American philosopher Gerald MacCallum (1925-87) argued that Berlin was wrong to think that there are two concepts of liberty, and very wrong if he thought that there was any difference between freedom from' and 'freedom to'.
O According to MacCallum, all claims about freedom have the following form: x is (is not) free from y to do (not do, become, not become)z O Freedom is a triadic relation. It necessarily involves reference to three things. It necessarily involves reference to three things: x, the agent or subject of freedom; y, the constraint or interference or obstacle; z, the goal or end. O People disagree not in their views about the concept of liberty but in their views about conceptions of it.
Three distinctions between conceptions of Liberty(Freedom)
1) Effective freedom v. formal freedom O The difference between effective and formal freedom is the difference between having the power or capacity to act in a certain way and the mere absence of interference. O The fact that nobody is preventing you from doing something does not necessarily mean that you can actually do it. Are you free to do it because nobody is stopping you? Or unfree-because you are not able to do it?
2) Freedom as autonomy v. freedom as doing what one wants If we give resources to the poor in order to increase their effective freedom, we are enablingthem to do things they want (or might want) to do but would otherwise not be able to do. O Freedom as autonomy is more controversialthan freedom as effective power or capacity to act.
rdomas political participationy feedom beginning where politics ends O Just liste..
Equality o We all agree with the principle that members of a political community should be treated as equals, that the state should treat its citizens with equal concern and respect. o What they disagree about is what 'treatment as an equal amounts to. 0 For libertarians such as Nozick, treating people as equals means respecting their property rights, including their right to self-ownership. 0 Some think that treatment as an equal requires equality of opportunity. No prejudice, based on race or gender, creating barriers to individuals' efforts to better themselves. o Others take it to imply a much more equal distribution of income and wealth. And so on. o Consider two uncontroversial respects in which we think that the state should treat people as equals: o equality before the law, and 0 equality of citizenship.
Equality of Condition o Equality of access. o Equalising individuals and groups. 0 This stage is prior to the starting point. o Here, protective discrimination makes some sense.
lity of Opportunityy o All have equal start with equal opportunity 0 The same starting point & equal life chances. o "Career open to talents" ; obstacles do not prevent people from achieving their public positions which their talent fit, and where birth, caste, creed, color does not determine the opportunities. o Meritocracy matters. o Plato's Republic had proposed that the social positions should be strictly based on individual ability & effort.
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