Liberty Imagine a Women is driving a Car.
Equality o We all agree with the principle that members of a political community should be treated as equals, that the state should treat its citizens with equal concern and respect. o What they disagree about is what 'treatment as an equal amounts to. 0 For libertarians such as Nozick, treating people as equals means respecting their property rights, including their right to self-ownership. 0 Some think that treatment as an equal requires equality of opportunity. No prejudice, based on race or gender, creating barriers to individuals' efforts to better themselves. o Others take it to imply a much more equal distribution of income and wealth. And so on. o Consider two uncontroversial respects in which we think that the state should treat people as equals: o equality before the law, and 0 equality of citizenship.
Equality of Condition o Equality of access. o Equalising individuals and groups. 0 This stage is prior to the starting point. o Here, protective discrimination makes some sense.
lity of Opportunityy o All have equal start with equal opportunity 0 The same starting point & equal life chances. o "Career open to talents" ; obstacles do not prevent people from achieving their public positions which their talent fit, and where birth, caste, creed, color does not determine the opportunities. o Meritocracy matters. o Plato's Republic had proposed that the social positions should be strictly based on individual ability & effort.
Equality of Outcomes 0 Itis equal distribution of rewards. o "Everyone must finish at the same time."; everyone must win and all must have prizes. o Andrew Heywood points that "Equality of outcomes implies that all runners finish the race in line together, regardless of their starting point and the speed of which they run." o Rousseau was an advocate of this type of equality, (not a socialist though!!) "No citizen shall be rich enough to buy another and none so poor to be forced to sell himself"
Relationship between Equality & Freedom O Most philosophers regard liberty as interchangeable to equality, for Hayek both these terms are identical. O The classical liberals thought of equality as legitimate if it did not interfere with the fulfilment of personal freedom & autonomy. o Equality is a tool to achieve individual autonomy and freedom. O But with time both these concepts came to be projected as opposing
Liberty & Equality are Opposed to each other O De Tocqueville, Lord Acton, Bagehot, Hayek, Friedman, Mosca, and Pareto. O Because liberty & inequality are natural hence equality & liberty are contradictory. o Secondly, every advance in equality diminishes freedom. o John Randolph, once uttered the famous line (I love Liberty, I hate Freedom )
Liberty & Equality are compatible For them, the greatest injustice is not economic inequality but coerced social equality, which subordinates human freedom for a bland equality Equality & Freedom are complimentary. O It's advocates are Laski, Tawney, Pollard, Barker Acc. To Laski, "There can not, be a democratic government without equality, and without democratic government there can not be freedom." O A society where liberty is devoid of equality will be a society of strifes and class conflicts. O Polard aptly puts it, "There is only one solution to the problem of liberty. It lies in equality."
Conclusion (Playing with words) The libertarian societies uphold liberty more than equality, whereas the equalitarian societies seek equality more than liberty. Equality is the only condition offreedom but not the necessary condition. Freedom is constraint on equality but it is not the only one. Equality & Freedom do not run in opposite direction; they run in parallel directions.
Previous Year Questions O Differentiate between Freedom & Liberty. Discuss Marx's notion of Freedom. (2017) O Explicate the relationship between Equality & Liberty? (2014) Difference between equality of opportunity and equality of outcome.
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