Political Ideologies learn about the 'isms of politics.
2 right vs teft Derived from the First French National assembly semi-circular assembly where the pro-monarchist conservatives sat on the right and revolutionary republicans sat on the left. . .To generalize, the Right is seen as against political, economic & social change and the left is in favour of it. . The Right tends to be monarchist, clerical and favors the interests of the propertied class. While the left is identified with republicanism and who favours the interest of the masses(workers or peasants) . In Contemporary democracies, we need to supplement the previous picture, . Where we emphasize on the existence of a large democratic Centre committed to the existing constitutional system, but accepting the legitimacy of gradual social and economic change. and
3 Both the far right and the far left are (usually) minorities who wish to drastically modify the existing constitutional and social system. the left in an anti-capitalist, the right in an ultra-nationalist direction.
4 2. The Old Right- "Monarchism" The normal situation in medieval Europe was of secular government by kings or emperors who were crowned by the pope or by archbishops authorised by him Followed the doctrine of 'two swords' - secular and clerical authority supporting each other and respecting each other's spheres of influence. there was a division of powers with, the Church administering areas of family and property law and having its own taxes (tithes); There was royal influence over Church appointments However, the power of Church > emperor. When modern idea of state sovereignty was developed, and when Henry VIII the protestant king assumed the leadership over the Christian church, more radical idea of the 'divine rights of king' were established Kings were increasingly attracted to the idea that countries could only have one sovereign and that he held authority from God not man. . .
3. The Radical Right: Nazism .In contemporary circumstances, however, the forces which are generally seen as furthest to the right are those of fascism or Nazism Hitler's 'National Socialist' Party was not without a populist strand for the hrer (leader) was seen as representing the true interests of the German people. It was also, in rhetoric at least, anti capitalist- with capitalism seen as a Jewish conspiracy to rob the Volk (German People) of its birthright. .In practice Nazism was dominated by the urge for power of its elite and their commitment to xenophobia, racism and nationalism The urge to right the perceived wrong of the Versailles settlement of 1919 and strong nationalist feelings (shared by many Germans) was elaborated into a nightmare doctrine. . . The attempt to implement a state based on the doctrines resulted in the deaths of millions across the whole planet. Hitler's views, articulated in Mein Kampf ('My Struggle'), built in many ways upon more orthodox conservative German political theorists and philosophers, ex Hegel .
Contd...(Nazism . Hegel [1770-1831], for instance, had stressed the importance of a strong state, its role in defining culture and the existence of a logic (or dialectic) of history which justified war by superior states upon inferior ones. Schopenhauer [1780-1860] glorified Will over Reason. Nietzsche [1844-1900] believed in the creation of a race of superior individuals . . Views like these were combined with carefully selected 'scientific' findings about natural selection and the nature of human racial divisions to create an ideology which had a powerful appeal in the politically volatile atmosphere of an economically depressed Germany in the 1930s."
7 3. The Radical Right: "Fascism Italian Fascism placed much less emphasis on racism As an alternative to democracy the appeal of the leader was combined with an attempt to create a corporatist structure of representation in which bodies such as the Church, the army and employers' associations and even workers' syndicates could be represented. . . Fascism is no ideology; it is a policy, a programme. .Mussolini first coined this term. (Fascio in Italy means union) He defines fascism as a right wing collectivistic ideology in opposition to socialism, liberalism and democracy. . Fascism has no theoreticians, but has all leaders, practical politicians. Fascist state has more powers than responsibilities Ex- Japan under Tojo, Austria under Dollfuss and Greece under Metaxas. Hannah Arendt classified Italian fascism as an authoritarian ideology A . . .
. With the defeat of Hitler, explicit endorsement of Nazi oir fascist ideas has, on the whole, become rather unfashionable. The South African apartheid regime could be seen as the last contemporary fascist state with an ideology based on racialism and supported by an apparatus of torture and repression The Milosovich Serbian regime in the former Yugoslavia might also be interpreted in a similar way, the ideology is nominally one of nationalism rather than racialism
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