Faith: Both necessary and sufficient for religious life. Direct relation b/w the depth & gravity of religious life & the depth & gravity of faith If one's faith is superficial, one's religious commitment, too, lacks firmness & depth. Bible: faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. Kant: faith has subjective certainty that is sufficient for action, but is insufficient for objective knowledge Features: 1. Faith implies belief in the uniqueness, superior quality & magnificence of the object of faith. Faith is held firm as long as the superior value ascribed is not proved mistaken/ false. 2. Commitment: We try to be loyal & attached to it both in thought & action. W/o a sense of loyalty, devotion & dedication, faith is nothing but cynicism 3. Faith implies action. Belief is something upon which we are prepared to act, i.e., faith w/o action is like a tree w/o fruits, barren, sterile, stagnant. There's no sufficient evidence for reasonable certainty but certainty for action/ commitment to action 4. The fact of self-surrender- we can hardly make any sacrifice for sth we feel no sense of dedication & commitment For the willingness to sacrifice one needs, in addition to dedication, self-surrender. A person who has given up his personal will & regards himself as instrument for the realization of some supreme will can joyfully sacrifice anything and everything. 5. It is a source of inspiration. Whether it is due to auto-suggestion & self-hypnosis or any super-natural agency is difficult to determine. 6. Trust in unseen~the most characteristic feature of faith 7. Holistic in nature it is the attitude as well as object of ultimate concern. It is the product of the whole man & cannot be reduced to ordinary/ scientific knowledge. 8. In faith, not mind, but person reasons. Faith means the whole man at work & means all-pervasive attitude to the whole reality. ai They are correlated. If revelation is the work of God, then faith is the receptivity of man to accept this revelation. 2 kinds: evidence-sensitive & evidence-insensitive.
Former- faith is supported with demonstrable truths, includes evidence via testimony & works of other believers Latter- an act of will of the believer alone. Faith and Reason: Some philosophers say that there can be no conflict b/w the two- reason properly employed & faith properly understood will never produce competing claims whereas some others say otherwise. Kierkegaard: prioritizes faith to the point that it become positively irrational Locke: emphasized the reasonability of faith to the point that a religious doctrine's irrationality is a sign that it is unsound. Logical positivists: denied that there's a domain of thought/ human existence rightly governed by faith. All meaningful statements are accessible to rational examination. It is possible to hold a religious belief on the basis of either faith/ reason alone. One can lack faith in God/ deny his existence, but still find peace in religion. The problem of faith & reason comes from the fact that the revelation on which most religions are based is described in sacred pronouncements, either in an oral tradition or canonical writing, backed by some divine authority & immune from rational critique & evaluation. Even the attempt to verify it rationally can be a category mistake. Yet most religions encourage some kind of rational examination of their beliefs.