Soul: immortality: Rebirth and Liberation Beliefs about Immortality: 1. Dualism 2. Materialism 3. Monistic pantheism 4. Buddhist doctrine of no-self 1. Dualism West: Plato, Aquinas, Descartes | East: Samkhya Soul & Body are not identical 2. Materialism Carvaka- Once the physical body dies, the person perishes No immaterial aspect of self -no soul immaterial mind Matter is the fundamental entity & soul is made up of matter 3. Monistic pantheism Advaita Vedanta Monism (reality is one, no destruction of things): ultimate reality (Brahman)- undifferentiated & beyond all qualities, including personhood Pantheism (all is divine): Due to Maya, self appears to us different from its true nature (Brahman) 4. No-self Buddhism- anatman (no-self)- there is no "thing"that has independent existence; no individual substances, permanent atma/ soul No soul- permanent, integral, autonomous being within an individual existence This is based on PS- being is conditioned i.e. "this being that arises". No self, rather the individual consists of fleeting skandas- "panchskanda". If the body were the self, this body would not lend itself to disease. Feeling is not self... Perception is not self... Mental processes are not self... Consciousness is not self. If consciousness were the self, this consciousness would not lend itself to disease. Thus, any body [or consciousness/ feeling/ perception]-is to be seen as it actually is as: "This is not mine. This is not myself. This is not what I am." An old Indian chariot analogy is cited regarding the no-self view. A chariot is not spokes/ wheels/ frame/ axle; it's none of the individual parts. Neither is it the individual parts taken together. Yet neither is it something other than the parts. It's merely the sound of the word "chariot." So is with individual selves. We have 4 conceptions of the self, and each provides unique views about death & afterlife: DualistPhysical death is not necessarily the end of self, the soul might exist in the afterlife, embodied/disembodied MaterialistLife after death is possible if the body can be raised from the dead or somehow reconstituted Monistic pantheist & Buddhist no-self conceptionReincarnation & karma are fundamentally important to understand what happens after the body dies.