Water Storage: The water(flood water etc) is stored and is slowed. .This allows the recharging of the groundwater. mitigate flood damages. Biological Productivity: . The wetlands are able to absorb nutrients and are highly biologically productive because they produce biomass very quickly, almost equivalent to the tropical rainforests. .The efficiency in creation of the biomass makes them important for the development of alternate sources of energy. Wildlife Habitat . The wetlands are important wildlife habitats. . Many species are dependent upon wetlands.
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands * International treaty for "the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands". * Formal title of the Ramsar Convention is "The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat" Not legally binding Ramsar is a town in Iran and this international treaty aims the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, to stem the progressive encroachment or and loss of wetlands now and in the future. * Signed in Ramsar on February 2, 1971fso February 2 - World Wetland Day) Came into force on December 21, 1975. * Number of parties to the convention (COP) is 169. At the center of the Ramsar philosophy is the "wise use" of wetlands. Wise use: maintenance of ecological character within the context of sustainable development
IE Article] Two inequalities As a social document, the Indian Constitution mandates special provisions in favour of the underprivileged OThe Hindu right rejected the Constitution and its liberal values and has not been an enthusiastic supporter of SC/sT resersathnfohan Bhagwat called for a review of the OIn 2015, during the Bihar elections, RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat called for a review of the reservation policy. Anticipating electoral losses in caste-ridden Bihar, the BJP quickly distanced itself from the statement of the RSS chief. After by-election defeats, UP Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath, in an effort to break Dalit- Muslim unity, has raised the issue of SC/ST reservations at Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) and Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI OThe Modi government, in spite of promises by Union minister Ram Vilas Paswan, neither brought an ordinance to undo the March 20 controversial iudgment of the apex court on atrocities against SCs/STs, nor showed any inclination of overturning the regressive judgment of Allahabad High Court in Vivek Tiwari (2017) on reservations in universities or judgments on reservations in promotions
As per governmental policy, there must be 15 per cent reservations for SCs and 7.5 per cent for STs in government universities O But today only seven of 100 teachers in colleges and universities are from the underprivileged sections. O Only 1,02,000 - or 7.22 per cent- of the 1.4 million teachers were Dalits in 2016. OThe ST faculty members were just 30,000 or a meagre 2.12 per cent. O If Yogi is sincere towards the Dalit cause, he must immediately order the filling of all vacant reserved positions in the universities under the administrative control of his government. OAMU and JMI being central institutions are concerns of the central government. By the way, BHU has an extremely poor record in filling reserved positions. The chief minister must be aware of the constitutional provision on the exemption of minority institutions from reservations His purpose is simply to polarise and rally together upper caste Hindus Article 30 of the Indian Constitution permits religious and linguistic minorities to establish and administer the educational institutions of their choice. since minorities are defined at the state level Yogi should know that Hindus, too, as a linguistic minority are entitled to Article 30 rights A Hindi medium institution in Tamil Nadu established by the Hindus of UP will be a linguistic minority institution. Hindus are also a religious minority in a few states.
Article 15(5) of the Constitution says that minority institutions under Article 30 shall be exempt from constitutional reservation. This amendment was inserted in 2005 by the 93rd constitutional amendment OThe constitutional validity of the amendment was upheld by the five-judge bench of the Supreme Court in Ashok Thakur (2008). The court said that the exemption of minority educational institutions from the ambit of reservations is constitutionally valid as such institutions are a class by themselves and cater to the special needs of minorities. Their exemption is thus not violative of the right to equality The Supreme Court has held minority rights as the basic structure of the Constitution and therefore these rights cannot be taken away even by constitutional amendments The Supreme Court held in Aziz Basha (1968) that the term "educational institution" in Article 30 includes a "university" and thus there can be minority universities. We have a number of minority universities established by Muslims, Christians, Jains etc. The apex court in Kerala Education Bill (1957) explicitly held, and in TMA Pai Foundation (2003) its 11-judge bench reiterated, that a minority institution is primarily for the minority that has established it and there shall be "only sprinkling of outsiders" to ensure the dissemination of a minority culture to those outsiders
The court has consistently held that governmental "aid" cannot come "with such restrictions which will destroy or annihilate the minority character of such institutions" OThat AMU or JMI receive governmental "aid" has no effect whatsoever on their minority character. In the case of AMU, there is a stay order of the apex court on the 2005 decision of Allahabad HC and therefore till the SC finally determines its minority character, no change in its reservation policy is legally possible. OAs far as the JMI is concerned, the National Commission of Minority Educational Institutions (NCMEI) has recognised it as a minority institution. OA few weeks back, the apex court in Sisters of St Joseph of Cluny (2018) held that the NCMEI has the jurisdiction to declare the minority character of educational institutions. Minority institutions are like private institutions that have been established by the minorities primarily for the education of the concerned minority. They invest their resources, their land and money in establishing such institutions.
Till 2003, as per St. Stephen's (1991), minority institutions were allowed to reserve only 50 per cent seats in favour of the minority that has established such an institution. UTMA Pai (2003) lifted the upper limit of 50 per cent OThus now minority institutions may have more than 50 per cent reservations in favour of minorities depending upon the course and needs of the minority communit DAssuming in a minority university, there is just 50 per cent reservation for the concerned minority, now if 22.5 per cent SC/ST reservations and 27 per cent OBC reservations is also provided in such an institution, only 0.5 per cent seats will be left for the general candidates. Since the Supreme Court has said that 50 per cent seats should always remain available to the general candidates, SC/ST reservations was made inapplicable to minority institutions. The 93rd amendment thus was to comply with the apex court's order in TMA Pai. There is no Muslim reservation in AMU. It already has more than 45 per cent or so Hindus in its prestigious courses like medicine or engineering. If Yogi really cares for Dalits, let him force the BJP to implement Dalit reservations in the private sector. Meanwhile, let AMU and JMI make special efforts to increase SC/ST representation so that societal diversity is reflected in these institutions.
[TH Page10] Russia-related sanctions to dominate 2+2 talks When India and U.S. hold their first 2+2 Dialogue involving the External Affairs and Defence Ministers and their counterparts, one of the key issues would be questions regarding the recent Russia-related sanctions that have now come up as a key impediment for India's defence modernisation. External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj and Defence Minister Nirmala Sithara man will visit the U.S. for the first meeting of the 2+2 Dialogue on July 6 with Secretary of State Michael R. Pompeo and Secretary of Defence James N. Mattis O The new dialogue format was agreed upon by the two sides during Prime Minister Narendra Modi's visit to Washington D.C. in June 2017 [IE Explained] COMCASA: Why US, India can't connect Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement. What is the COMCASA? COMCASA is meant to provide a legal framework for the transfer of communication security equipment from the US to India that would facilitate "interoperability" between their forces and potentially with other militaries that use US-origin systems for secured data links. The general agreement signed by the US is called the Communication and Information on Security Memorandum of Agreement (CISMOA) but the name was changed to COMCASA to reflect its India- specific nature It is part of a set of three military agreements that the US considers "foundational" for a functional military relationship
In August 2016, India had signed the Logistics ExchangeINDIA-US DEALS Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA), which allows the military of each country to replenish from the other's bases Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) SIGNEDIN AUGUST 2016 Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA) BEING NEGOTIATED Negotiations on the third agreement, Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement for Geo-spatial Cooperation (BECA), have not yet begun. Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreementfor Geo-spatial Cooperation (BECA) TO BENEGOTIATED
The American push DUS officials contend that COMCASA will facilitate the use of high-end secured communication equipment to be installed on military platforms being sold to India, and fully exploit their potential. DIndia's armed forces, they argue, are currently dependent on less secure, commercially available communication systems on high-end American platforms like C-130Js and the P8l maritime surveillance aircraft. These platforms are, therefore, unable to share data in real time with other friendly militaries using American platforms, besides creating problems of interoperability during training exercises and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations. OThe signing of COMCASA, however, becomes imperative if India is to get the armed version of the Sea Guardian drones from the US. New Delhi has been intimated by the American officials that the high-end drones are critically dependent on a highly secure data and communication system link. The US granted India the status of Major Defence Partner in the final days of the Obama administration to facilitate transfer of high-end defence technology. Signing the foundational agreements would underline that status, beside making the transfer of American defence technology possible to India.
India - US Logistics Support Agreement LEMOA 30 Aug 2016] India and US signed the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement LEMOA'. Dlt will give the militaries of US and India access to each other's facilities for supplies and repairs. Jlt is an enabling agreement. Dlt does not make logistical support automatic or obligatory for OThe agreement does not involve allowing military bases either. JThe services or supplies accessed will be on a reimbursable either party. Each case will require individual clearance. basis.
Scenarios in which LEMOA will come into play: O The U.S. has LEMOA agreements with over 100 countries but basing agreements O Two examples of the LEMOA's utility: o A U.S. carrier battle group steams from the Persian Gulf to the western Pacific through which are different - with only a fraction of those partners. the Straits of Malacca. Along the way, Indian Navy ships operating off Cochin are authorised by the GOl to conduct a previously unprogrammed passing exercise with the U.S. flotilla. During the exercise, the U.S. vessels offload fuel and supplies from their Indian counterparts. Instead of having to pay in cash for the victuals, India simply maintains a ledger balance for the transactions, which is cleared in one go at the end of the fiscal year. o Similarly, an Indian naval vessel suffers a maintenance problem while visiting the U.S for an exercise. The repairs are done at an American port. The LEMOA will permit the costs of the repairs to be defrayed against any comparable debts the U.S. may owe India for supplies and services received in other circumstances through a simple "balancing of the books" at the end of the fiscal year.
B.Tech NIT Allahabad. Scored 136 & 120 in UPSC Prelims. YouTube Channel "Crackers' IAS Academy". Telegram - CrackersIASAcademy