India's membership in N SG: *Any state that conducts exports appearing on the Guidelines may apply for NSG membership *A potential member is evaluated on its proliferation record, Oadherence to international nonproliferation treaties and agreements, and national export controls. All existing members must approve an applicant for it to join the regime. India's membership is one of the important issues facing NSG in the immediate future. There is, of course, also the issue of further expansion of the NSG in the coming years, which needs to be looked into by the NSG members. Factors that need to be considered by the NSG Participating Governments (PGs) while considering admission of new States were last finalized by the NSG members during their 2001 Aspen Plenary.
Criteria to admission in NSG : A new Participating Government should: 1.be able to supply items covered by the Annexes to Parts 1 and 2 of the Guidelines; 2.adhere to and act in accordance with the Guidelines; 3.have in force a legally-based domestic export control system which gives effect to the commitment to act in accordance with the Guidelines; 4.Be a party to the NPT, the Treaties of Pelindaba, Rarotonga, Tlatelolco or Bangkok or an equivalent international nuclear non-proliferation agreement, and in full compliance with the obligations of such agreement(s), and, as appropriate, have in force a full-scope safeguards agreement with the IAEA. 5. Be supportive of international efforts towards non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and of their delivery vehicles. Countries with nuclear programs outside the NSG India, Israel, Pakistan, North Korea. *US(in 2010), France(2010), UK: supports India's NSG membership.
Time to shift focus from land to water productivity in farming' [TH] A report released by the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) OTitled Water Productivity Mapping of Major Indian Crops Othe report is part of a research project with ICRIER, mapping a water atlas for 10 major crops rice, wheat, maize, red gram or tur, chickpea or channa, sugarcane, cotton, groundnut, rapeseed-mustard and potato. These together occupy more than 60% of the country's gross cropped area It says: Indian agriculture needs to stop being "obsessed with land productivity and instead start worrying about water productivity Given that Indian agriculture uses almost 80% of all the country's water resources, which are increasingly under stress, changing the objective of agriculture development to increasing productivity per unit of water, especially irrigation water, is crucial The stark differences between land and water productivity are seen in rice and sugarcane cultivation the report says. o Punjab reports the highest land productivity for rice, producing four tonnes per hectare. However, it only produces 0.22 kg of rice for every metre cube of irrigation water o Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh, on the other hand, produce 0.75 and 0.68 kg for the same amount of water. However, low irrigation coverage results in low land productivity in these States. Jharkhand has only 3% of its land under irrigation.
For sugarcane, another water-guzzling crop, Tamil Nadu reports the highest land productivity, producing 105 tonnes per hectare. o Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh also have high rates of land productivity. However, all four States in the water-stressed sub-tropical belt have an irrigation water productivity of less than 5 kg/m3. o In fact, an average of 40 rounds of irrigation are needed in Tamil Nadu. o The Gangetic Plain States of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, on the other hand, need five and eight rounds of irrigation respectively. The report recommends that cropping patterns be re-aligned to water availability, using both demand and supply side interventions. With water and power subsidies skewing cropping patterns, it also recommends reform in these areas, with a shift from the price policy approach of heavily subsidising inputs to an income policy approach of directly giving money to farmers on per hectare basis. The prices will then be determined by market forces.
In a first, WHO recommends quadrivalent influenza vaccine H a s aalar egacslod o cal ana Sanofi Pasteur's injectable influenza vaccine (FluQuadri) containing two A virus strains H1N1 and H3N2 and two B virus strains Victoria and Yamagata for active immunisation of adults of age 18 to 64 years was approved in May last year by the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI). The application for the paediatric indication is under review by the DCGI and final approval is expected by the end of this month. (FDA) in 2013; it is licensed in 26 countries. Despite the high number of infections and mortality each year, India does not have in place a national O Sanofi's quadrivalent influenza vaccine was licensed for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Issues in Indian context OPregnant mothers, children aged below five and young people with asthma, cardiovascular disease, O The Ministry of Health issues only H1N1 vaccination guidelines for different vulnerable groups including O "If you want to reduce the influenza burden in adults, then we must target children as they act as policy for influenza immunisation diabetes and high blood pressure are at a greater risk of infection and death. healthcare workers reservoirs," "Influenza can be seasonal or pandemic
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