In the formative years of the SCO, Russia pushed strongly for India to join it, to somewhat balance China's economic dominance in Central Asia. The Chinese were not responsive. OChina has since consolidated its energy and economic foothold in the region, where ambitious infrastructure and connectivity projects are envisaged as part of its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Olt has secured the simultaneous admission of Pakistan into the SCO. India has to carve out a political and economic space for itself in Central Asia, alongside Russia's role as net security provider and China's dominating economic presence The Central Asian countries would welcome India breaking into this Russia-China duopoly. The India-Pakistan interaction was closely watched in Qingdao. OThe handshake and exchange of pleasantries between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Pakistan President Mamnoon Hussain were noted, as also the absence of bilateral altercations. It allayed apprehensions, expressed in the run-up to Indian and Pakistani accession, that SCO deliberations would get bogged down by India-Pakistan squabbles. It also respected the etiquette of international organisations: countries join them to promote shared objectives, not to settle bilateral scores.
The India-Pakistan track DRussian President Vladimir Putin has suggested that harmonious cooperation in the Sco may pave the way for an India-Pakistan rapprochement, recalling that SCO membership had facilitated resolution of China's boundary disputes with Russia and Central Asian countries. Dchinese officials have also expressed this hope. UThe circumstances are not comparable. Ochina made substantial concessions to settle its boundary disputes with Russia and Central Asia, in pursuit of larger strategic and economic objectives in the region. DIndia-Pakistan differences extend well beyond a boundary dispute, flow from different historical circumstances and are located in a different geopolitical environment.
Then how can SCO can contribute in improving Indo-Pak relations The SCO will, however, nudge both countries to cooperate in sensitive areas OOne example is the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) of the SCO, which coordinates cooperation for security and stability, through intelligence-sharing on criminal and terrorist activities India and Pakistan, which exchange mutual recriminations in such matters, have to find ways of cooperating in the RATS ODefence cooperation is another tricky area: enhanced linkages between armed forces is an ScO objective. India has agreed to participate in the SCO's counter-terrorism military exercises in Russia later this year, when Indian and Pakistani troops will operate together. Reconciling Indian and Pakistani perspectives in the SCO's initiatives on Afghanistan would be yet another challenge.
The expansion of SCO has diluted its unanimity on hitherto shared perspectives. OTacitly accepting the fact that India and Pakistan are not signatories to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the Qingdao declaration confirms the compliance of the SCO's NPT signatories to its provisions. OIndia's reservations on China's BRI are accommodated by excluding ndorse it (all except India) The boilerplate formulations on terrorism accommodate the concerns of various members, without offending any. The essence of a functioning multilateral framework is focusing on shared objectives and underplaying divergences.
Besides expanding opportunities for India in Central Asia, the SCO is a platform for articulating a non-Western-as distinct from anti-Western perspective on global issues. IThis includes opposition to selective advocacy of regime change, self-serving homilies on human rights and intrusive advice on domestic policies It suits India that the SCO is not stridently anti-West in its pronouncements Ol . OStridentlyin an extremely forceful way. OThe U.S. cultivates relations with Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan to ensure logistical support for its Afghanistan operations and to gradually wean them away from Russian influence. These countries welcome the room for manoeuvre that this gives them O Russia and China also carefully avoid strong anti-West postures in the SCO preferring to deal with differences quietly and bilaterally.
Balance of forces : The challenge for India in SCO The challenge for India - besides that of security and defence cooperation with Pakistan may come from increasing Chinese dominance of the SCO indiarnefrom increasing Chinese domtber, ledin sia *This could happen if Russia-U.S. relations worsen further, leading Russia to an even greater dependence on Chinese political and economic support. & Another possible game-changer could be the fallout of the much-heralded U.S.-North Korea summit. If, as Mr. Trump has hinted, peace in the Korean peninsula leads to reduced American military presence in the region, it would dramatically change the balance of forces in the Asia-Pacific in favour of China. This would transform Eurasian dynamics, with an inevitable impact on SCO.
30. International al Lab Organization's [TH Article 2] The imperative to offer refuge Conventions 138 and 182 are related to (a) Child labour (b) Adaptation of agricultural practices to Today, India is host to over 200,000 refugees who have been forced to flee conflict and persecution in their home countries. On World Refugee Day (June 20), there is a need to reassess India's approach to refugee protection, particularly in light of the regional refugee crisis after the mass exodus of the Rohingya from Myanmar. Traditionally, India has hosted several persecuted groups such as Tibetans and Sri Lankans. While it is not a signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention and has no domestic asylum law, it has reiterated its commitment towards the protection of refugees at various international fora, including the UN General Assembly global climate change (c) Regulation of food prices and food security (d) Gender parity at the workplace
One of the most significant affirmations of this commitment was demonstrated by India becoming a signatory to the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants, which was adopted by 193 countries in September 2016. O In doing so, India has expressed its solidarity with those forced to flee and agreed that protecting refugees and supporting the countries that shelter them are shared international responsibilities that must be borne more equitably. The Declaration sets the stage for a new framework for refugee protection-the Global Compact on Refugees (GCR) O The Compact is a coordinated effort to strengthen international response to protracted refugee situations and comprehensively addresses all stages of refugee protection, from reception to long- term solutions. O Two of its key objectives are to ease pressures on host countries and enhance refugee self-reliance. O The GCR recognises that certain refugee situations can last for decades and acknowledges that the burden is borne largely by developing countries, that now host over 80% of the refugee population in the world. O In light of this, it calls for support from the international community in the form of resources. It also seeks to establish forums to enable expertise-sharing to promote economic opportunities decent work and job creation not just for refugees but also for the host community. O Since the Declaration was adopted, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has been engaging with member states, UN bodies, and non-governmental organisations to develop a plan for its practical implementation; this will be finalised by the end of 2018.
Indian context Although India has hosted refugees of varying nationalities for decades, the country has done little beyond providing asylum. *There have been some attempts to introduce a refugee law in the country, the latest being the Asylum Bill 2015, introduced as a private member's bill by Shashi Tharoor. *However, none has gone the distance and the government continues to adopt an ad hoc approach towards this group. *Given that most refugees have been unable to return to their countries leading to protracted refugee situations, there is an urgent need for the government to develop a uniform framework for their management during their stay in India.
For instance, due to their unclear legal status and lack of uniform documentation, refugees have limited access to essential services and almost no avenues for livelihood. While some refugees have been able to generate income by working in the informal sector, many of them are at the mercy of touts and traffickers even within their own community. At best, they are forced to rely on income from odd jobs which is an unsustainable livelihood option that often leaves them exposed to exploitation. Solution: The solution to this may lie within the GCR, which calls for States to identify gaps and opportunities for employment and income generation for refugees in a bid to enhance their self-reliance Moreover, it specifies the need to include the host community in enabling mapping skills, vocational training and capacity-building among refugee populations, thereby fostering understanding and cooperation among the communities and paving the way for a socially cohesive approach.
Opening next year, tombwaidter that 'inspire ' the Taj Mahal nda 72. With reference to the cultural history of India, consider the following statements 1. White marble was used in making Buland Darwaza and Khankah at Fatehpur Sikri. 2. Red sandstone and marble were used in making Bara Imambara and Rumi Darwaza at Lucknow. Which of the statements given above is/are correct ? (a) 1only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan was commissioned by Rahim for his wife. Tashi Tobgyal
The beauty of the tomb, however, lies in the tales of the man who commissioned it. Son of Mughal emperor Akbar's mentor, Bairam Khan, Rahim was one of the emperor's nine navratans. Proficient in Sanskrit, he wrote two books on Astrology in the language. He also trans- lated Baburnama into Persian
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