unacademy 17 June 2018 The Hindu Daily News & Editorial Analysis The Hindu(Completely) Indian Express(Very Imp pieces) Delivered by : Sumant Kumar B.Tech in Computer Science & Engg, NIT Allahabad * Have written UPSC Main Exam in 2016 and 2017 with Physics Optional
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Pranab Mukherjee on C R Das '1923 Bengal pact could have prevented partition' [Indian Express] Former president Pranab Mukherjee, while speaking in Delhi about freedom fighter Chittaranjan Das invoked the 1923 Bengal Pact drafted by him, aimed at communal harmony, and suggested that had it seen country-wide implementation, "perhaps the partition could have been avoided" Speaking of the role played by Das in creating the Bengal pact - that was aimed at forming "unity from the top" between Muslims and Hindus in 1923 across India, then there perhaps would not have been any need for the partition." Mukherjee said, "Many believe that had it been implemented Examine the events leading to Suharawardi-Sarat Bose agreement. Why did it fail to create United Bengal nation? 250 words 15 Marks 2
Suhrawardy-Sarat Bose agreement/ Bengal Pact: Features + Consequences Events leading to Bengal Pact: * Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy: then CM of Bengal o supported the "Two nation" theory and Pakistan. o But He feared India will get Bengal's industrialized regions and Calcutta, while (East) Pakistan will only get the poor-backward areas of Bengal. Bengali Hindu leader Sarat Chandra Bose believed that division of Bengal between India and Pakistan, will ruin its culture and economy. But Since Hindus would not agree to a "United" Bengal joining Pakistan and Muslims would not agree to a "United" Bengal joining India, therefore Suharawardy and Sarat Bose decided to carve out a Sovereign nation - "United Bengal" free from both India and Pakistan, and jointly run by both Hindus and Muslims. o They sought Gandhi's help, Gandhi supported this idea in hope to counter Jinnah's two nation theory. But maintained that all decisions for "united Bengal" should be taken on mutual consent among Hindus and Muslims. o Therefore, Suharawardy and Sarat Bose drafted an agreement. This is known as "Bengal Pact" or "Suhrawardi-Sarat Bose agreement" or "Sarat Formula" on 20th May 1947.
Bengal Pact: Features 1)Bengal would become an independent state 2)Bengal's Constitution will be drafted by an assembly of 16 Muslims, 14 Hindus 30 members. 3)Interim government with Muslim CM and Hindu Home minister, 4)Proportional representation of Hindus and Muslims in the 5)A candidate who wins majority votes of his own community and 6)Hindus (including Scheduled Caste Hindus) and Muslims will until this Constitution is drafted legislature. 25% votes of other community, would be declared elected have equal share in military and Police jobs.
Why Bengal Pact failed? Assam CM Gopinath Bordoloi complained Mountbatten, "if Bengal became a separate country, Assam will be cutoff from India & Calcutta port. This will ruin Assam's tea business & economy." Jinnah agreed to separate Bengal country IF Congress gave him WHOLE Punjab. Obviously, Congress, Nehru and Patel opposed. Shya maprasad Mukharjee's Hindu Mahasabha also started "Bengali Hindu Homeland Movement" for creation of separate state for Bengali Hindus within Indian dominion Bengal's Muslim league also backtracked, "we agree to formation of Pakistan and Muslim dominated Bengali areas joining (east) Pakistan. We have nothing to do with demand for separate Bengal country made by Suharawardy and Sarat Bose." seeing no consensus among Congress and Muslim league for "united" Bengal, Lord Mountbatten decided to partition Bengal between India and Pakistan Now, picture becomes clear that Calcutta will go to India. Chief Minister Suharawardy fears that Hindu will kill him because of his involvement in "Direct action Day". He runs away to Dhaka, abandoning the plan of United Bengal nation and accepts to live under Jinnah's (East) Pakistan (Where he would later become the Prime Minister.) Now, Sarat Chandra Bose is isolated. He seeks Gandhi's support. But Nehru and Patel requested Gandhi not to support Sarat Bose on this matter. Therefore, Gandhi asked Sarat to abandon the idea of United Bengal nation
No headway in India's push for NSG entry [Indian Express] With New Delhi's application before the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) in Latvia, the NSG, after a two-day meeting, said that it discussed "NSG relationship with India" and continues to consider all matters pertaining to implementation of the 2008 NSG waiver for India. In fact, two years after India first approached the NSG plenary in Seoul, the group "noted that discussions were continuing on the requests for participation that had been submitted". The NSG also noted that discussions are continuing on the issue of "Technical, Legal and Political Aspects of the Participation of Non-NPT States in the NSG", initiated at the 2016 Seoul plenary. Latvia, which assumed chairmanship of the NSG for 2018-19 on June 14, was represented by Minister of Foreign Affairs, Edgars Rinkevics. Latvia is the first Baltic state to chair the NSG. Baltic states, northeastern region of Europe containing the countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
FINLAND Gulf of Bothnia Finland Aland Stockholm Helsinki SWEDEN Peterburg Sweden Gulf of Finland ESTONIA Hilumo Peipus RUSSIA Russian Baltic Sea Eton EstoniaFederation LATVIA B A Latvia Oland Riga LITHUANIA EUROPE The Baltic States aliningrad Lithuania POLAND BELARUS Oblost Vilnius Poland Belarus
Lake Onega umea FINLAND SWEDEN Gulf Lake Ladoga Tampere Turku Helsin Saint Petersburg G vle, RUSSIA ALAND Oslo Tallin Stockholm ISLANDS ESTONIA Moscow LATVIA Gotland Riga Baltic sea LITHUANIA Kaliningrad, RUSSIA Goteborg Vitsyebsk Smolensk Oland ENNAR Malmo openhage Mahilyow, Minsk Vilnius Bornholm BELARUS Gda sk Hrodna Homyel chernihiv Hamburg Warsa
NSG Nuclear Suppliers Group Da multilateral export control regime and a group of nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons Osetup in 1974, in response to 1st Indian nuclear test. 048 members(2018). Dregulates global trade in civil nuclear technology and material Olt ensures the materials and technologies transferred to any nation aren't diverted to developing nuclear weapons ONSG members are expected to forgo nuclear trade with governments that do not subject themselves to international measures and inspections designed to ensure that their nuclear imports are not used to develop nuclear arms. Olt isolated India from nuclear trade with the rest of the world.
India's membership in N SG: *Any state that conducts exports appearing on the Guidelines may apply for NSG membership *A potential member is evaluated on its proliferation record, Oadherence to international nonproliferation treaties and agreements, and national export controls. All existing members must approve an applicant for it to join the regime. India's membership is one of the important issues facing NSG in the immediate future. There is, of course, also the issue of further expansion of the NSG in the coming years, which needs to be looked into by the NSG members. Factors that need to be considered by the NSG Participating Governments (PGs) while considering admission of new States were last finalized by the NSG members during their 2001 Aspen Plenary.
Time to shift focus from land to water productivity in farming' [TH] A report released by the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) OTitled Water Productivity Mapping of Major Indian Crops Othe report is part of a research project with ICRIER, mapping a water atlas for 10 major crops rice, wheat, maize, red gram or tur, chickpea or channa, sugarcane, cotton, groundnut, rapeseed-mustard and potato. These together occupy more than 60% of the country's gross cropped area It says: Indian agriculture needs to stop being "obsessed with land productivity and instead start worrying about water productivity Given that Indian agriculture uses almost 80% of all the country's water resources, which are increasingly under stress, changing the objective of agriculture development to increasing productivity per unit of water, especially irrigation water, is crucial The stark differences between land and water productivity are seen in rice and sugarcane cultivation the report says. o Punjab reports the highest land productivity for rice, producing four tonnes per hectare. However, it only produces 0.22 kg of rice for every metre cube of irrigation water o Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh, on the other hand, produce 0.75 and 0.68 kg for the same amount of water. However, low irrigation coverage results in low land productivity in these States. Jharkhand has only 3% of its land under irrigation.
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