Sumant Kumar is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
It may not be possible to revive Mumbai's mangroves. But any long-term solution to the city's frequent flooding problems, as the Chitale Committee suggested, requires the unburdening of Mumbai's natural drainage system. DUnless the channels of the Mithi river are widened and the plastic menace curbed, India's financial capital will struggle to deal with heavy rainfall. A day before Sunday's downpour, the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation laid down regulations, making Mumbai the first city in Maharashtra to enforce the state's ban on the use of plastics. But 17 other states, that have similar regulations in place, still find it difficult to contain the menace. OA 2016 report of the Central Pollution Control Board notes that, "plastic bags are stocked, sold and used indiscriminately even in those states where they are completely banned" The report also notes these states would do well to "implement the Plastic Waste Management Rules 2011, which mandate proper systems to ensure the segregation and disposal of plastic waste". This holds true for Mumbai as well.
Wetland: o The land area where soil is saturated with moisture either permanently or seasonally are called Wetlands. o It includes all lakes and rivers, underground aquifers, swamps and marshes, wet grasslands, peatland, oases, estuaries, deltas and tidal flats, mangroves and other coastal areas, coral reefs, and all human-made sites such as fish ponds, rice paddies, reservoirs and salt pans. adesiesch fish pands rice pacien.reseroite ats salt pans o he water in these wetlands may be satwsnrordh o The water in these wetlands may be saltwater, freshwater or brackish water. O It may be running or stagnant. o The wetlands are most biologically diverse of all ecosystems supporting numerous plant as well as animal lives. o The Ramsar convention on wetlands defines the wetland as follows: wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres." o Wetlands are transition zones between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. E.g. Mangroves, lake littorals (marginal areas between highest and lowest water level of the lakes), floodplains (areas lying adjacent to the river channels beyond the natural levees and periodically flooded during high discharge in the river) and other marshy or swampy areas.
Functions of Wetlands o There are two important functions of Wetlands that make them so important in the climate change. One is the mitigation effect by which they are able to sink carbon. Another is adaptation by which they are able to store and regulate water. o Water Filtration: Wetlands remove the excess nutrients and slow the water so to allowing particulates to settle out of the water which can then be absorbed into plant roots. up to up to 92% of phosphorus and 95% of nitrogen can be removed from passing water through a wetland. S The pollutants get settled by sticking to the soil particles. S Some wetlands accumulate the heavy metals and this decrease the pollutant load of the surrounding waters. . The wetlands support a vast and intricate food web and these complex food chains host various microbes and bacteria on which the invertebrates feed upon. These invertebrates can filter up to 90% of bacteria in this way.
Water Storage: The water(flood water etc) is stored and is slowed. .This allows the recharging of the groundwater. mitigate flood damages. Biological Productivity: . The wetlands are able to absorb nutrients and are highly biologically productive because they produce biomass very quickly, almost equivalent to the tropical rainforests. .The efficiency in creation of the biomass makes them important for the development of alternate sources of energy. Wildlife Habitat . The wetlands are important wildlife habitats. . Many species are dependent upon wetlands.
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands * International treaty for "the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands". * Formal title of the Ramsar Convention is "The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat" Not legally binding Ramsar is a town in Iran and this international treaty aims the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, to stem the progressive encroachment or and loss of wetlands now and in the future. * Signed in Ramsar on February 2, 1971fso February 2 - World Wetland Day) Came into force on December 21, 1975. * Number of parties to the convention (COP) is 169. At the center of the Ramsar philosophy is the "wise use" of wetlands. Wise use: maintenance of ecological character within the context of sustainable development
IE Article] Two inequalities As a social document, the Indian Constitution mandates special provisions in favour of the underprivileged OThe Hindu right rejected the Constitution and its liberal values and has not been an enthusiastic supporter of SC/sT resersathnfohan Bhagwat called for a review of the OIn 2015, during the Bihar elections, RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat called for a review of the reservation policy. Anticipating electoral losses in caste-ridden Bihar, the BJP quickly distanced itself from the statement of the RSS chief. After by-election defeats, UP Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath, in an effort to break Dalit- Muslim unity, has raised the issue of SC/ST reservations at Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) and Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI OThe Modi government, in spite of promises by Union minister Ram Vilas Paswan, neither brought an ordinance to undo the March 20 controversial iudgment of the apex court on atrocities against SCs/STs, nor showed any inclination of overturning the regressive judgment of Allahabad High Court in Vivek Tiwari (2017) on reservations in universities or judgments on reservations in promotions
As per governmental policy, there must be 15 per cent reservations for SCs and 7.5 per cent for STs in government universities O But today only seven of 100 teachers in colleges and universities are from the underprivileged sections. O Only 1,02,000 - or 7.22 per cent- of the 1.4 million teachers were Dalits in 2016. OThe ST faculty members were just 30,000 or a meagre 2.12 per cent. O If Yogi is sincere towards the Dalit cause, he must immediately order the filling of all vacant reserved positions in the universities under the administrative control of his government. OAMU and JMI being central institutions are concerns of the central government. By the way, BHU has an extremely poor record in filling reserved positions. The chief minister must be aware of the constitutional provision on the exemption of minority institutions from reservations His purpose is simply to polarise and rally together upper caste Hindus Article 30 of the Indian Constitution permits religious and linguistic minorities to establish and administer the educational institutions of their choice. since minorities are defined at the state level Yogi should know that Hindus, too, as a linguistic minority are entitled to Article 30 rights A Hindi medium institution in Tamil Nadu established by the Hindus of UP will be a linguistic minority institution. Hindus are also a religious minority in a few states.
Article 15(5) of the Constitution says that minority institutions under Article 30 shall be exempt from constitutional reservation. This amendment was inserted in 2005 by the 93rd constitutional amendment OThe constitutional validity of the amendment was upheld by the five-judge bench of the Supreme Court in Ashok Thakur (2008). The court said that the exemption of minority educational institutions from the ambit of reservations is constitutionally valid as such institutions are a class by themselves and cater to the special needs of minorities. Their exemption is thus not violative of the right to equality The Supreme Court has held minority rights as the basic structure of the Constitution and therefore these rights cannot be taken away even by constitutional amendments The Supreme Court held in Aziz Basha (1968) that the term "educational institution" in Article 30 includes a "university" and thus there can be minority universities. We have a number of minority universities established by Muslims, Christians, Jains etc. The apex court in Kerala Education Bill (1957) explicitly held, and in TMA Pai Foundation (2003) its 11-judge bench reiterated, that a minority institution is primarily for the minority that has established it and there shall be "only sprinkling of outsiders" to ensure the dissemination of a minority culture to those outsiders
The court has consistently held that governmental "aid" cannot come "with such restrictions which will destroy or annihilate the minority character of such institutions" OThat AMU or JMI receive governmental "aid" has no effect whatsoever on their minority character. In the case of AMU, there is a stay order of the apex court on the 2005 decision of Allahabad HC and therefore till the SC finally determines its minority character, no change in its reservation policy is legally possible. OAs far as the JMI is concerned, the National Commission of Minority Educational Institutions (NCMEI) has recognised it as a minority institution. OA few weeks back, the apex court in Sisters of St Joseph of Cluny (2018) held that the NCMEI has the jurisdiction to declare the minority character of educational institutions. Minority institutions are like private institutions that have been established by the minorities primarily for the education of the concerned minority. They invest their resources, their land and money in establishing such institutions.
Till 2003, as per St. Stephen's (1991), minority institutions were allowed to reserve only 50 per cent seats in favour of the minority that has established such an institution. UTMA Pai (2003) lifted the upper limit of 50 per cent OThus now minority institutions may have more than 50 per cent reservations in favour of minorities depending upon the course and needs of the minority communit DAssuming in a minority university, there is just 50 per cent reservation for the concerned minority, now if 22.5 per cent SC/ST reservations and 27 per cent OBC reservations is also provided in such an institution, only 0.5 per cent seats will be left for the general candidates. Since the Supreme Court has said that 50 per cent seats should always remain available to the general candidates, SC/ST reservations was made inapplicable to minority institutions. The 93rd amendment thus was to comply with the apex court's order in TMA Pai. There is no Muslim reservation in AMU. It already has more than 45 per cent or so Hindus in its prestigious courses like medicine or engineering. If Yogi really cares for Dalits, let him force the BJP to implement Dalit reservations in the private sector. Meanwhile, let AMU and JMI make special efforts to increase SC/ST representation so that societal diversity is reflected in these institutions.
In August 2016, India had signed the Logistics ExchangeINDIA-US DEALS Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA), which allows the military of each country to replenish from the other's bases Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) SIGNEDIN AUGUST 2016 Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA) BEING NEGOTIATED Negotiations on the third agreement, Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement for Geo-spatial Cooperation (BECA), have not yet begun. Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreementfor Geo-spatial Cooperation (BECA) TO BENEGOTIATED
India's concerns New Delhi is believed to be concerned about intrusive American access to Indian military communication systems, and about the violation of Indian sovereignty due to visits by US inspectors to Indian bases to inspect the COMCASA-safeguarded equipment There is also a fear that a lot of Russian-origin and indigenous lndian military platforms may not be compatible with COMCASA. Olt is also a politically sensitive issue in India. The signing of LEMOA had earned a lot of criticism for the BJP government from the opposition parties. Moving into an election year, with India-US relations on a somewhat less strong footing, the government may be hesitant to sign the agreement now.
Scenarios in which LEMOA will come into play: O The U.S. has LEMOA agreements with over 100 countries but basing agreements O Two examples of the LEMOA's utility: o A U.S. carrier battle group steams from the Persian Gulf to the western Pacific through which are different - with only a fraction of those partners. the Straits of Malacca. Along the way, Indian Navy ships operating off Cochin are authorised by the GOl to conduct a previously unprogrammed passing exercise with the U.S. flotilla. During the exercise, the U.S. vessels offload fuel and supplies from their Indian counterparts. Instead of having to pay in cash for the victuals, India simply maintains a ledger balance for the transactions, which is cleared in one go at the end of the fiscal year. o Similarly, an Indian naval vessel suffers a maintenance problem while visiting the U.S for an exercise. The repairs are done at an American port. The LEMOA will permit the costs of the repairs to be defrayed against any comparable debts the U.S. may owe India for supplies and services received in other circumstances through a simple "balancing of the books" at the end of the fiscal year.
Thanks For Watching O Rate, Review, Upvote, Share