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(2/7) 27 June 2018 The Hindu + Indian Express DNA
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Sumant Kumar
B.Tech NIT Allahabad. Have written UPSC Mains 2 times with Physics. Channel "Sumant Kumar" on Youtube for Current Affairs Analysis.

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  1. These new manoeuvres of international finance capital added substantial fragility to Turkey's economy, which already accumulated substantial external debt of around $500 billion (mostly private sector debt). D JTo do so, Mr. Erdo an may be compelled to enact policies that favour the By the end of the year, Turkey will have to pay down almost half of this deb bt. business communities and disadvantage the working class and the peasantry. Higher rates of unemployment can be expected, as can inflation in essential goods. Mr. Erdo an will likely deal with this situation in the way he has tackled it in the past by finding scapegoats in Turkey's Kurdish population or in unnamed 'outsiders OHe effectively uses a seam of Turkish anxiety about being targeted by outsiders, a symptom of having not properly come to terms with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and of the European Union's (EU's) awkward arm's-length relationship with Turkey.

  2. [TH Ed2] Tainted by uranium Reports of widespread uranium contamination in groundwater across India demand an urgent response OA study, published in Environmental Science and Technology Letters, has found over 30 micrograms per litre (mcg/1) of the heavy metal in parts of northwestern, southern and southeastern India. ODrinking such water can damage one's kidneys, and the World Health Organization prescribes 30 mcg/l as an upper limit, These findings highlight a major gap in India's water-quality monitoring. As the Bureau of Indian Standards does not specify a norm for uranium level, water is not tested regularly for it. This is despite the fact that evidence of uranium contamination has accumulated from across India over the last decade. The health effects of drinking uranium-tainted water merit special attention. Othe heavy metal damages the kidneys this is a chemical effect, rather than a radiological one, even though uranium is radioactive. But the chronic effects of uranium consumption are still unknown.

  3. Mechanism by which uranium enters groundwater. The Environmental Science paper identified two types of terrains with heavy contamination, in Rajasthan and other northwestern regions, uranium occurs mostly in alluvial aquifers; while in southern regions such as Telangana, crystalline rocks such as granite seem to be the source OWhen groundwater is over-extracted from such soils the uranium is exposed to air, triggering its release. These hypotheses must be explored, because they will help determine where to find safer water. JThis is what happened in West Bengal, where a decade of research revealed why the contaminant OResearchers found that a combination of geological and chemical triggers brought arsenic mainly occurred in shallow aquifers. arsenic to the Ganga delta in the Holocene era, and then released it into the sediments from that period. Similar research across India's uranium hotspots can uncover who is at risk, and how to protect them

  4. BIS Act 2016 establishes the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) as the National Standards Body of India. Compulsory certification: The Act has enabling provisions for the Government to bring under compulsory certification regime any goods or article of any scheduled industry, process, system or service which it considers necessary in the public interest or for the protection of human, animal or plant health, safety of the environment, or prevention of unfair trade practices, or national security. Hallmarking: Enabling provisions have also been made for making hallmarking of the precious metal articles mandatory Dallows multiple type of simplified conformity assessment schemes including self-declaration of conformity against a standard which will give simplified options to manufacturers to adhere to the standards and get certificate of conformity. Denables the Central Government to appoint any authority/agency, in addition to the BIS, to verify the conformity of products and services to a standard and issue certificate of conformity OThere is also a provision for repair or recall, including product liability of the products bearing Standard Mark but not conforming to the relevant Indian Standard.

  5. Bureau of Indian Standards BIS: Inational Standards Body of India Junder Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution Destablished by BIS Act 1986 Minister in charge of the Ministry or Department having administrative control of the BIS is the ex-officio President of the BIS. Dit has 25 members drawn from Central or State Governments, industry, scientific and research institutions, and consumer organisations. Uworks as WTO-TBT enquiry point for India

  6. [IE Ed1] City and the deluge The system, that can barely deal with 30 mm of rainfall, gets choked when Mumbai experiences torrential rainfall of the kind it got on Sunday and Monday. On Sunday, Mumbai received more than 150 mm of rainfall. But the memory that Mumbaikars dread most is that of the floods of 2005. At least 500 people lost their lives when 944 mm of rainfall, over a 24- hour period, brought the Mumbai Metropolitan Region to its knees. After the floodwaters receded, the Maharashtra government constituted the Madhavrao Chitale Committee to assess the city's disaster preparedness OThe recommendations of the committee's report, submitted in 2006, have been implemented sluggishly, at best.

  7. The refurbishing of Mumbai's colonial-era stormwater drainage system, for instance, hasn't acquired the urgency required to meet the needs of a city of 1.84 crore people. OThe system, that can barely deal with 30 mm of rainfall,gets choked when Mumbai experiences torrential rainfall of the kind it got on Sunday and Monday. OThe situation gets compounded because the city's wetlands, creeks, and hbeen bul over or hatheciye etlands creeks nullahs have either been built over or have become stinking gutters Housing colonies empty their waste into them and untreated effluents from industries flow freely into what used to be Mumbai's natural sponges. OThe most important component of the city's drainage network, the Mithi river, which once demarcated Mumbai and its suburbs, is encroached upon and clogged with plastic and solid waste OVery little remains of the mangroves along the city's coastlines, which mitigated the effects of torrential rains.

  8. It may not be possible to revive Mumbai's mangroves. But any long-term solution to the city's frequent flooding problems, as the Chitale Committee suggested, requires the unburdening of Mumbai's natural drainage system. DUnless the channels of the Mithi river are widened and the plastic menace curbed, India's financial capital will struggle to deal with heavy rainfall. A day before Sunday's downpour, the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation laid down regulations, making Mumbai the first city in Maharashtra to enforce the state's ban on the use of plastics. But 17 other states, that have similar regulations in place, still find it difficult to contain the menace. OA 2016 report of the Central Pollution Control Board notes that, "plastic bags are stocked, sold and used indiscriminately even in those states where they are completely banned" The report also notes these states would do well to "implement the Plastic Waste Management Rules 2011, which mandate proper systems to ensure the segregation and disposal of plastic waste". This holds true for Mumbai as well.

  9. Wetland: o The land area where soil is saturated with moisture either permanently or seasonally are called Wetlands. o It includes all lakes and rivers, underground aquifers, swamps and marshes, wet grasslands, peatland, oases, estuaries, deltas and tidal flats, mangroves and other coastal areas, coral reefs, and all human-made sites such as fish ponds, rice paddies, reservoirs and salt pans. adesiesch fish pands rice pacien.reseroite ats salt pans o he water in these wetlands may be satwsnrordh o The water in these wetlands may be saltwater, freshwater or brackish water. O It may be running or stagnant. o The wetlands are most biologically diverse of all ecosystems supporting numerous plant as well as animal lives. o The Ramsar convention on wetlands defines the wetland as follows: wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres." o Wetlands are transition zones between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. E.g. Mangroves, lake littorals (marginal areas between highest and lowest water level of the lakes), floodplains (areas lying adjacent to the river channels beyond the natural levees and periodically flooded during high discharge in the river) and other marshy or swampy areas.

  10. Functions of Wetlands o There are two important functions of Wetlands that make them so important in the climate change. One is the mitigation effect by which they are able to sink carbon. Another is adaptation by which they are able to store and regulate water. o Water Filtration: Wetlands remove the excess nutrients and slow the water so to allowing particulates to settle out of the water which can then be absorbed into plant roots. up to up to 92% of phosphorus and 95% of nitrogen can be removed from passing water through a wetland. S The pollutants get settled by sticking to the soil particles. S Some wetlands accumulate the heavy metals and this decrease the pollutant load of the surrounding waters. . The wetlands support a vast and intricate food web and these complex food chains host various microbes and bacteria on which the invertebrates feed upon. These invertebrates can filter up to 90% of bacteria in this way.

  11. Water Storage: The water(flood water etc) is stored and is slowed. .This allows the recharging of the groundwater. mitigate flood damages. Biological Productivity: . The wetlands are able to absorb nutrients and are highly biologically productive because they produce biomass very quickly, almost equivalent to the tropical rainforests. .The efficiency in creation of the biomass makes them important for the development of alternate sources of energy. Wildlife Habitat . The wetlands are important wildlife habitats. . Many species are dependent upon wetlands.

  12. As per governmental policy, there must be 15 per cent reservations for SCs and 7.5 per cent for STs in government universities O But today only seven of 100 teachers in colleges and universities are from the underprivileged sections. O Only 1,02,000 - or 7.22 per cent- of the 1.4 million teachers were Dalits in 2016. OThe ST faculty members were just 30,000 or a meagre 2.12 per cent. O If Yogi is sincere towards the Dalit cause, he must immediately order the filling of all vacant reserved positions in the universities under the administrative control of his government. OAMU and JMI being central institutions are concerns of the central government. By the way, BHU has an extremely poor record in filling reserved positions. The chief minister must be aware of the constitutional provision on the exemption of minority institutions from reservations His purpose is simply to polarise and rally together upper caste Hindus Article 30 of the Indian Constitution permits religious and linguistic minorities to establish and administer the educational institutions of their choice. since minorities are defined at the state level Yogi should know that Hindus, too, as a linguistic minority are entitled to Article 30 rights A Hindi medium institution in Tamil Nadu established by the Hindus of UP will be a linguistic minority institution. Hindus are also a religious minority in a few states.

  13. Till 2003, as per St. Stephen's (1991), minority institutions were allowed to reserve only 50 per cent seats in favour of the minority that has established such an institution. UTMA Pai (2003) lifted the upper limit of 50 per cent OThus now minority institutions may have more than 50 per cent reservations in favour of minorities depending upon the course and needs of the minority communit DAssuming in a minority university, there is just 50 per cent reservation for the concerned minority, now if 22.5 per cent SC/ST reservations and 27 per cent OBC reservations is also provided in such an institution, only 0.5 per cent seats will be left for the general candidates. Since the Supreme Court has said that 50 per cent seats should always remain available to the general candidates, SC/ST reservations was made inapplicable to minority institutions. The 93rd amendment thus was to comply with the apex court's order in TMA Pai. There is no Muslim reservation in AMU. It already has more than 45 per cent or so Hindus in its prestigious courses like medicine or engineering. If Yogi really cares for Dalits, let him force the BJP to implement Dalit reservations in the private sector. Meanwhile, let AMU and JMI make special efforts to increase SC/ST representation so that societal diversity is reflected in these institutions.

  14. The American push DUS officials contend that COMCASA will facilitate the use of high-end secured communication equipment to be installed on military platforms being sold to India, and fully exploit their potential. DIndia's armed forces, they argue, are currently dependent on less secure, commercially available communication systems on high-end American platforms like C-130Js and the P8l maritime surveillance aircraft. These platforms are, therefore, unable to share data in real time with other friendly militaries using American platforms, besides creating problems of interoperability during training exercises and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations. OThe signing of COMCASA, however, becomes imperative if India is to get the armed version of the Sea Guardian drones from the US. New Delhi has been intimated by the American officials that the high-end drones are critically dependent on a highly secure data and communication system link. The US granted India the status of Major Defence Partner in the final days of the Obama administration to facilitate transfer of high-end defence technology. Signing the foundational agreements would underline that status, beside making the transfer of American defence technology possible to India.

  15. India's concerns New Delhi is believed to be concerned about intrusive American access to Indian military communication systems, and about the violation of Indian sovereignty due to visits by US inspectors to Indian bases to inspect the COMCASA-safeguarded equipment There is also a fear that a lot of Russian-origin and indigenous lndian military platforms may not be compatible with COMCASA. Olt is also a politically sensitive issue in India. The signing of LEMOA had earned a lot of criticism for the BJP government from the opposition parties. Moving into an election year, with India-US relations on a somewhat less strong footing, the government may be hesitant to sign the agreement now.

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