unacademy 6 June 2018 The Hindu Daily News & Editorial Analysis The Hindu(Completely) Indian Express(Very Imp pieces) Delivered by : Sumant Kumar B.Tech in Computer Science & Engg, NIT Allahabad Have written UPSC Main Exam in 2016 and 2017 with Physics Optional
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Centre not to file counter-affidavit on Article 35A Prelims 2019, Mains GS2 The Centre has decided not to file any "counter-affidavit" on Article 35A, which has been challenged in the Supreme Court through a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) petition. Article 35A allows the Jammu and Kashmir legislature to decide the "permanent residents" of the State, prohibits a non-State resident from buying property in the State and ensures reservation in employment for residents OArticle 35A was incorporated into the Constitution by an order of the then President Rajendra Prasad on the advice of the Jawaharlal Nehru Cabinet in 1954. O It grants a special status to Jammu and Kashmir. OThe Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order followed the 1952 Delhi Agreement between Nehru and the then Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, Sheikh Abdullah, which extended Indian citizenship to the 'State subjects' of Jammu and Kashmir. The petition, filed by We The Citizens, said Article 35A is against the "very spirit of oneness of India" as it creates a "class within a class of Indian citizens." A second petition, filed by Jammu and Kashmir resident Charu Wali Khanna, has challenged Article 35A for protecting certain provisions of the Jammu and Kashmir Constitution, which restrict the basic right to property if a native woman marries a man not holding a permanent resident certificate
Article 35A gives special rights and privileges to permanent residents of J&K, and empowers its legislature to frame any law without attracting a challenge on grounds of violating the right to equality of people from other states or any other right under the Indian Constitution. It was added to the Constitution by a Presidential Order issued in 1954 under Article 370 OShould Article 35A be struck down, not only will it mean an end to the special status of permanent residents of J&K, the doors can opened for the invalidation of 41 Presidential Orders, each of which was an amendment to, or modification of, the 1954 Order. It is through these Presidential Orders that the Centre has extended 94 out of 97 entries in the Union List to J&K, and made applicable to the state 260 out of 395 articles of the Indian Constitution. The petitioner has challenged Article 35A as applicable to J&K on the ground that the President has no power to modify/amend an article of the Constitution of India while applying it to J&K
Issue : The parliamentary route of lawmaking was bypassed when the President incorporated Article 35A into the Constitution. JArticle 368 (i) of the Constitution empowers only Parliament to amend the aSo did the President act outside his jurisdiction? Is Article 35A void because the A five-judge Bench of the Supreme Court in its March 1961 judgment in Pura nlal Constitution Nehru government did not place it before Parliament for discussion? Lakhanpal vs. The President of India discusses the President's powers under Article 370 to 'modify' the Constitution. o Though the court observes that the President may modify an existing provision in the Constitution under Article 370, the judgment is silent as to whether the President can, without the Parliament's knowledge, introduce a new Article. o This question remains open
Q1 Article 35A is a provision incorporated in the Constitution giving the Jammu and Kashmir Legislature a carte blanche to decide who all are 'permanent residents' of the State and confer on them special rights and privileges. Which are those rights and privileges? 1) Employment under the State Government 2) Acquisition of immovable property in the State 3) Settlement in the State 4) Right to scholarships a) 1 and 2 only b) 2 and 3 only c) 1, 2 and 4 only d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Q2 Article 35A of the Q3 Consider the following statements regarding Article 35A? 1)lt was added through the Constitution (Application to Jammu Constitution relating to a)special rights and privileges of and Kashmir) Order, 1954, issued under Article 370. 2)Article 35A protects certain provisions of the J&K Constitution permanent residents of J&K which denies property rights to native women who marry from outside the State. The denial of these rights extend to her children also. b)Right to Life 3)Article 35A also empowers the State's legislature to frame any c)Right to Privacy d)Special status to law without attracting a challenge on grounds of violating the Right to Equality of people from other States or any other right under the Constitution. Nagaland Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Nitrogen emissions going up: study [Prelims 2019, Mains GS3] Nitrogen particles make up the largest fraction of PM2.5, the class of pollutants closely linked to cardiovascular and respiratory illness, says the first-ever quantitative assessment of nitrogen pollution in India. OWhile the burning of crop residue is said to be a key contributor to winter smog in many parts of North India, it contributes over 240 million kg of nitrogen oxides (NOxa generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) and about 7 million kg of nitrous oxide (N20) a year. The Indian Nitrogen Assessment assesses the sources, impacts, trends and future scenarios of reactive nitrogen in the Indian environment. Though agriculture remains the largest contributor to nitrogen emissions, the non- agricultural emissions of nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide are growing rapidly, witlh sewage and fossil-fuel burning-for power, transport and industry leading the trend. Indian NOx emissions grew at 52% from 1991 to 2001 and 69% from 2001 to 2011. Annual NOx emissions from coal, diesel and other fuel combustion sources are growing at 6.5% a year currently, the report says.
Agricultural soils contributed to over 70% of N2O emissions from India in 2010, followed by waste water (12%) and residential and commercial activities (6%). since 2002,N20 has replaced methane as the second largest Greenhouse Gas (GHG) from Indian agriculture. chemical fertilizers (over 82% of it is urea) account for over 77% of all agricultural N2O emissions in India, while manure, compost and so on make up the rest. Most of the fertilizers consumed (over 70%) go into the production of cereals, especially rice and wheat, which accounts for the bulk of N2O emissions from India Cattle account for 80% of the ammonia production, though their annual growth rate is 1%, due to a stable population. O India is globally the biggest source of ammonia emission, nearly double that of NOx emissions. But at the current rate of growth, NOx emissions will exceed ammonia emissions and touch 8.8 tonnes by 2055. The poultry industry, on the other hand, with an annual growth rate of 6%, recorded an excretion of reactive nitrogen compounds of 0.415 tonnes in 2016 OThat is anticipated to increase to 1.089 tonnes by 2030. The authors suggest that nutrient recovery/recycling from waste water for agriculture could cut down N2O emissions from sewage and waste water by up to 40%.
Highlights from the 'Indian Nitrogen Assessment', the first ever quantitative assessment of reactive nitrogen in the Indian environment Agricultural soils remain the largest contributor of nitrogen emissions Others: 12% Residential and commercial activities: 6% Chemical fertilisers used in Agriculture: N20 emissions break-up 5 Burning of crop residue in most parts of North India is one of the main sources of nitrogen emissions. AFP Waste water: 12% Source: Indian Nitrogen Assessment Menace of nitrogen oxides (NOx) pollution
Life in plastic As a major producer of plastic waste that ends up in the oceans, India is arguably the best place to host World Environment Day. Union Environment Minister Harsh Vardhan has said the government means business, and the UN theme, "Beat Plastic Pollution" will not remain an empty slogan. His claim would have inspired greater confidence had India taken its own rules on waste management seriously. Both the Solid Waste Management Rules and the Plastic Waste Management Rules of 2015, which built on previous regulations, mostly remain on paper. State governments have simply not given them the necessary momentum, and the producers of plastic articles that are invariably used just for a few minutes have shown little concern about their negative environmental impact ONot every piece of plastic collected by the system is scientifically processed. It is no surprise, therefore, that the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna river system is on the UN map of 10 rivers worldwide that collectively carry the bulk of the plastic waste into the oceans. The effects are evident: they threaten marine life and the well-being of people, as microplastics are now found even in drinking water
In their response to the crisis, communities and environmentally minded individuals are ahead of governments and municipal authorities They segregate waste, compost at home, conduct "plastic free" social events and help recover materials that would otherwise just be dumped in the suburbs and wetlands. But, valuable as they are, voluntary efforts cannot achieve what systemic reform can It is the Centre's responsibility to ensure that the Environment (Protection) Act, the overarching law that enables anti-pollution rules to be issued, is implemented in letter and spirit DIdeally, regulation should help stop the manufacture of single-use plastic articles such as carry bags and cutlery, and encourage the use of biodegradable materials. There is a challenge here, though. The provisions of the Plastic Waste Management Rules require manufacturers of compostable bags to get a certificate from the Central Pollution Control Board, but this has not stopped counterfeit products from entering the market Local bodies mandated under rules to ensure segregation, collection and transfer of waste to registered recyclers have spectacularly failed to fulfil their responsibilities. The State Level Monitoring Committees provided for under the rules have not been made accountable The waste management framework is dysfunctional.
Risks associated with exfoliating agents used in personal care products has alarmed green panel What are microbeads? Why is it used? o Microbeads have been used to replace natural exfoliating materials. Microspheres in different colors add visual appeal to cosmetic products because of which their usage is becoming more rampant O Microbeads are plastic pieces or fibre measuring less than 1 mm What are microbeads made o Microbeads used in personal care products are mainly made of olyethylene (PE), but can be also e made of polypropylene (PP) polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) What are they mainly used in? o They are widely used in cosmetics as exfoliating agents and in personal care products such as toothpaste, as well as in biomedical and health science research. In layman's language, these microbeads are so small that a person can barely feel them. Their roundness and particle size create a ball-bearingwhere they contribute effect in creams and lotions resulting in a silky texture and spread ability What is the danger from them? Microbeads-largely Microbeads are also non-biodegradablelikely to be transported flow through sewer to wastewater treatment systems and end upplants. Due to their in seas and oceans, proportion passes through to the huge chunk of the filration system plastic soup in the environment and enters aquatic environments
A whistle-blower. DOn March 28, the Chairman of ICICI Bank's Board, M.K. Sharma, issued a statement expressing the board's full confidence in Ms. Kochhar. OIn April, media reports said that Mr. Sharma had carried out an internal inquiry in 2016 itself and had found no evidence of wrongdoing on Ms. Kochhar's part. End of story, or so the ICICI Bank board would have liked. However, the controversy would not die down. Investors and media analysts have been relentlessly pressing the board for a better response. Following charges made by a whistle- blower, the board has now authorised the chairman of the Audit Committee to select an appropriate person to head an independent probe. Sharp questions Three questions arise. OFirst, after having stood steadfastly by its CEO for over two months, why has the board opted for a probe now? OSecond, is a probe by an outsider required at all? Third, should Ms. Kochhar continue in office during the period of the inquiry?
Now that the board has decided to have a comprehensive probe, one that could stretch over several weeks or months, Ms. Kochhar's status during the period is an important issue. The board has denied having asked Ms. Kochhar to go on leave. It has said that her current leave had been planned in the normal course. Does this mean that she will continue to helm the company on her return from leave? O If yes, it is a highly unsatisfactory state of affairs. O Just think of the plight of those reporting to Ms. Kochhar and the morale in the organisation in general when its CEO is the subject of an extended probe O The correct and proper course would be to ask Ms. Kochhar to step down as CEO until the probe is completed.
Preventing the next health crisis In March, the government announced that it would release an annual "state of nutrition" report, detailing India's level of stunting, malnutrition and feature best practices for States to scale up nutrition interventions It is clear that India has a lot to do to tackle nutrition challenges - 26 million children suffer from wasting (a low weight-for-height ratio), more than in any other country. Yet, the country has the second highest number of obese children in the world 15.3 ilion in China and 14.4 million in India .While tackling undernutrition through assurance of adequate nutrition (usually interpreted as dietary calories), we need to ensure that it is also about appropriate nutrition (the right balance of nutrients) Our policy response has to move from "food security" to "nutrition security". achaeraenertioap tae county has heth New problem India must step up its efforts to fight overweight and obesity just as it has been doing with wasting and stunting. Between 1980and 2015, obesity doubled for children and tripled for adults; an additional 2.6 million children will be obese in India by 2025, a trend that will not reverse without action Rising obesity is putting pressure on already fragile health systems in India by posing a high risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and some cancers (clubbed together as non-communicable diseases, or NCDs) Research shows that Indians have higher levels of body fat and lower levels of lean muscle when compared to many other populations. Therefore, the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes operates even below global thresholds for defining overweight and obesity. Hence the urgency to take public health measures. Apart from a high burden of premature mortality, these threats are something that India can ill-afford to ignore as it looks ambitiously toward a universal health coverage system where everyone can access quality health services that are free of financial burden.
A tale of two countries [GS1 Post Independence India] Carved out of the same political fabric in 1947, India and Pakistan were expected to be identical twins. .Soon after Pakistan's creation, power gravitated to the office of the Governor-General or President outside the control of Parliament. This trajectory reached its zenith with the assumption of power in 1958 by Army Chief Ayub Khan. Since then, the military has called the shots in Pakistani politics. India launched itself on a very different route. The Constitution was framed in record time, powers of the different arms of government were clearly demarcated, and above all the armed forces were made subject to civilian authority. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru made it very clear in the context of the Menon- Thimayya differences in 1959 that, regardless of the merit of the case, "civil authority is and must remain supreme". This doctrine of civilian supremacy is one of Nehru's greatest gifts to the nation.
The underlying reason for the supremacy of civilian institutions in India and their decimation in Pakistan was the difference in the nature of the Congress and the Muslim League 1.The Congress had a countrywide organisational structure and a leadership whose legitimacy was uncontested o In contrast, the Muslim League hardly had any roots in Pakistan because its base lay in the Muslim minority provinces that remained in India o It was easy for the army-bureaucracy nexus to arrogate all power to itself in the absence of a political balancer 2.The second major reason lay in their radically different ideological underpinnings. o Pakistan was created on the basis of an exclusivist ideology that increasingly disqualified more and more segments of the population from access to power. o This was a recipe for mayhem that has turned Pakistan into a failing state. o India chose to adopt secularism as its guiding philosophy. o In the first four decades of its existence, India tried to approximate this ideal even if it did not achieve it all the time. o The story of the last 25 years, beginning with the demolition of the Babri Masjid followed by the Gujarat pogrom, has been very different, foreshadowing trends clearly visible today.
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