What explains the phenomenon and spread of lynchings across several States? OApart from the political reasons alluded to above, the rising trend is directly related to the intensification of communal polarisation and instrumentalisation of prejudice for political ends apparent in various government attempts to infuse religion into politics and education. In the event, these acts seem to have acquired a certain degree of legitimacy in the public mind. O Also, it's important to acknowledge the widespread role of violence in Indian politics which is not considered an illegitimate form of politics. Popular anger, outrage and violence are integral features of everyday politics in contemporary India O The feeling that mobs are exacting Bollywood style justice beyond the procedures of law, with crowds of locals triumphantly watching the gruesome spectacle captured by videos that subsequently go viral, has its own vicarious fascination. As hate crimes grow, so does the sense of impunity enjoyed by the actual perpetrators of the crime and those who prompt it. O Lack of justice for victims further reinforces the vicious cycle of impunity. There is also little condemnation of lynchings by those in positions of authority except in very generalised terms. The strategic silence of the BJP-Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) leadership works like unspoken approval to carry out the attacks O The lack of public reaction to recent incidents implies a degree of acceptability of violence as arn expression of vengeance against 'injustices' suffered by Hindus in the past.
The police often stand by, careful not to interfere with the actions of the majority community Both mobs and police have regularly treated victims of cow vigilantism, rather than those indulging in violence, as suspects in ways that de-victimise these individuals Rather than taking swift action against perpetrators, law enforcement agencies act mostly against the victims themselves, booking them for violating cow protection laws which act as a legitimate cover for taking action against people they suspect of trafficking in cattle intended for slaughter. Nature Most of these are not spontaneous acts of violence; there is usually systematic planning behind them. Common to all the episodes of violence is coordination across groups and States and districts, and no other political force masters this better than the Sangh Parivar with its numerous affiliates. Active support of powerful political figures in the current establishment at the Centre and in the States has helped to build networks, gain new recruits, resources and legitimacy that Hindu right- wing groups did not have in the past The newly acquired organisational capacity, including manpower, money and feet on the ground, has proved crucial for translating dark ideas into concrete action across districts and converting rumour and prejudice into attacks across State borders. Apart from providing employment opportunities to youth belonging to right-wing groups, another big incentive is participation in electoral politics as these foot soldiers double up as campaigners and booth committee members of the BJP during elections.
Sustained propaganda Lynchings are encouraged by the atmosphere of hate and suspicion created through sustained propaganda D Always ready to refurbish the deep historical archive of anti-Muslim prejudice by focusing on the past to demonise all Muslims, the BJP has weaponised Hindu anger and paranoia into a legitimate expression of a majoritarian nation. Localised violence happening with regularity also serves a political purpose. O By allowing lynchings to continue unchecked, the Hindu right boosts its image as the lone protector of Hindu religion and culture in India and this can help expand its social base Cow vigilantism, which is a pretext to exacerbate social conflicts between religious communities, serves the political purposes of ideologies and political formations that thrive on hate and polarisation OPreventing further atrocities requires respect for the rule of law and legal institutions and strong prosecutions and expeditious punishments. Unless checked, it can cause irreversible harm to the social fabric of our society and to the tenets of democracy that have shaped and sustained the idea of India. [TheHindu Article] An adviser with nobody to advise Arvind Subramanian has had quite a paradoxical tenure as the CEA to the Finance Minister.
[TheHindu Ed2] Wave of lynchings The events that led up to the brutal assault on Monday of two men in Uttar Pradesh's Hapur district on the outskirts of New Delhi are unclear- but one of them died and the other sustained injuries. The family of the dead man, Qasim, a 45-year-old cattle trader, says that he had set out when he heard about the possibility of cattle being on sale, and the next thing they heard was that a mob had set itself upon him, killing him. Investigations are on, so what actually transpired is not definitively known yet But given lynchings across north India by 'cow protection' vigilantes, it is not difficult to miss the communal dangers here. Elsewhere, from Tamil Nadu in the south to Assam in the Northeast, men and women have been lynched on suspicion that they were out to kidnap children OTo give just a few examples, in May, a homeless man in Pulicat, north of Chennai, was battered to death on such suspicion, as was a car-borne woman pilgrim in Tiruvannamalai district, who offered some sweets to children while seeking directions. This month, in Assam's Karbi Anglong district, two men from Guwahati were killed by a mob on the same anxiety that they were looking to kidnap children. In many cases including in Tamil Nadu and Assam - such public concern was created or heightened by warnings that were circulated on social media
Yet, irrespective of whether the lynchings are due to fear of kidnappings or are deliberate acts by cow protection vigilantes, the authorities should not treat the crime of murder and the allegations that enrage a mob with the same equivalence OMurder is murder, but the killing of another human being by a murderous crowd out to enforce mob justice or avert an imagined crime takes an extraordinary toll of the civilities of wider society. OThe police must make it clear, by word and action, that murder and mob violence will be strictly dealt with. Yet, the administration must also reckon with a new challenge: the use of social media, specially WhatsApp groups and forwards, to spread fear and pani OResponses such as surveillance and Internet shutdowns are not just impossible -in a free society, they are inadvisable OWhat is needed is an administration that reaches out to local communities to keep them in the loop in order to check trouble-makers and that conveys sufficient good faith so individuals will trust it to keep the peace and sift real threats from mischievous rumours.
Consider the following statements with reference to the Masala Bonds 1. It will facilitate rupee denominated borrowing from overseas. 2. The currency risk or exchange rate risks are borne by the investors. 3. Multilateral and regional financial institutions are not allowed to invest in these bonds. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Consider the following statements with reference to the Masala Bonds 1. It will facilitate rupee denominated borrowing from overseas 2. The currency risk or exchange rate risks are borne by the investors. 3. Multilateral and regional financial institutions are not allowed to invest in these bonds Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans B Masala bonds, like any other off-shore bonds, are intended for those foreign investors who want exposure to Indian assets, yet constrained from doing it directly in the Indian market or prefer to do so from their offshore locations. o RBI has put in place a framework for issuance of Rupee denominated bonds overseas within the overarching External Commercial Borrowing (ECB) policy, in order to facilitate Rupee denominated borrowing from overseas. o The settlement of the bonds will be in US dollars but since they are pegged to the Indian currency -rupee-, investors will directly take the currency risk or exchange rate risks. Settlement is done in US dollars because of the limited convertibility of rupee. o Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has recently allowed multilateral and regional financial institutions to invest in rupee denominated masala bonds. As a result, agencies like the Asian Development Bank and the BRICS led New Development Bank can also invest in these bonds.
With reference to the Hamari Dharohar scheme, consider the following statements: 1. It aims to preserve rich culture and heritage of minority communities of India. 2. It will be implemented by Ministry of Minority Affairs in consultation with Ministry of Culture. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
With reference to the Hamari "Hamari Dharohar" scheme aims to preserve rich culture and Dharohar scheme, consider the heritage of minority communities of India. The scheme will be following statements: 1. It aims to preserve rich culture communities under National Commission for Minorities Act 1992 and heritage of minority communities of India. 2. It will be implemented by Ministry of Minority Affairs in consultation with Ministry of Culture with the help of expert National consultation with Ministry of and International Knowledge Partners in this field. The Knowledge Culture Which of the statements given Archeological Survey of India (ASI); above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Ans C implemented for curating rich heritage of 6 notified minority (viz. Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Parsis and Jains) Ministry of Minority Affairs will implement this scheme in Partners may be as follows: * National Museum, Delhi; * National Archives of India, New Delhi; National Gallery of Modern Arts (NGMA); * Indira Gandhi National Centre of Arts (IGNCA); & United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); Indian National Trust for Arts and Cultural heritage (INTACH); World Monument Fund
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