Bengal Pact: Features 1)Bengal would become an independent state 2)Bengal's Constitution will be drafted by an assembly of 16 Muslims, 14 Hindus 30 members. 3)Interim government with Muslim CM and Hindu Home minister, 4)Proportional representation of Hindus and Muslims in the 5)A candidate who wins majority votes of his own community and 6)Hindus (including Scheduled Caste Hindus) and Muslims will until this Constitution is drafted legislature. 25% votes of other community, would be declared elected have equal share in military and Police jobs.
Why Bengal Pact failed? Assam CM Gopinath Bordoloi complained Mountbatten, "if Bengal became a separate country, Assam will be cutoff from India & Calcutta port. This will ruin Assam's tea business & economy." Jinnah agreed to separate Bengal country IF Congress gave him WHOLE Punjab. Obviously, Congress, Nehru and Patel opposed. Shya maprasad Mukharjee's Hindu Mahasabha also started "Bengali Hindu Homeland Movement" for creation of separate state for Bengali Hindus within Indian dominion Bengal's Muslim league also backtracked, "we agree to formation of Pakistan and Muslim dominated Bengali areas joining (east) Pakistan. We have nothing to do with demand for separate Bengal country made by Suharawardy and Sarat Bose." seeing no consensus among Congress and Muslim league for "united" Bengal, Lord Mountbatten decided to partition Bengal between India and Pakistan Now, picture becomes clear that Calcutta will go to India. Chief Minister Suharawardy fears that Hindu will kill him because of his involvement in "Direct action Day". He runs away to Dhaka, abandoning the plan of United Bengal nation and accepts to live under Jinnah's (East) Pakistan (Where he would later become the Prime Minister.) Now, Sarat Chandra Bose is isolated. He seeks Gandhi's support. But Nehru and Patel requested Gandhi not to support Sarat Bose on this matter. Therefore, Gandhi asked Sarat to abandon the idea of United Bengal nation
No headway in India's push for NSG entry [Indian Express] With New Delhi's application before the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) in Latvia, the NSG, after a two-day meeting, said that it discussed "NSG relationship with India" and continues to consider all matters pertaining to implementation of the 2008 NSG waiver for India. In fact, two years after India first approached the NSG plenary in Seoul, the group "noted that discussions were continuing on the requests for participation that had been submitted". The NSG also noted that discussions are continuing on the issue of "Technical, Legal and Political Aspects of the Participation of Non-NPT States in the NSG", initiated at the 2016 Seoul plenary. Latvia, which assumed chairmanship of the NSG for 2018-19 on June 14, was represented by Minister of Foreign Affairs, Edgars Rinkevics. Latvia is the first Baltic state to chair the NSG. Baltic states, northeastern region of Europe containing the countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
FINLAND Gulf of Bothnia Finland Aland Stockholm Helsinki SWEDEN Peterburg Sweden Gulf of Finland ESTONIA Hilumo Peipus RUSSIA Russian Baltic Sea Eton EstoniaFederation LATVIA B A Latvia Oland Riga LITHUANIA EUROPE The Baltic States aliningrad Lithuania POLAND BELARUS Oblost Vilnius Poland Belarus
Lake Onega umea FINLAND SWEDEN Gulf Lake Ladoga Tampere Turku Helsin Saint Petersburg G vle, RUSSIA ALAND Oslo Tallin Stockholm ISLANDS ESTONIA Moscow LATVIA Gotland Riga Baltic sea LITHUANIA Kaliningrad, RUSSIA Goteborg Vitsyebsk Smolensk Oland ENNAR Malmo openhage Mahilyow, Minsk Vilnius Bornholm BELARUS Gda sk Hrodna Homyel chernihiv Hamburg Warsa
NSG Nuclear Suppliers Group Da multilateral export control regime and a group of nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons Osetup in 1974, in response to 1st Indian nuclear test. 048 members(2018). Dregulates global trade in civil nuclear technology and material Olt ensures the materials and technologies transferred to any nation aren't diverted to developing nuclear weapons ONSG members are expected to forgo nuclear trade with governments that do not subject themselves to international measures and inspections designed to ensure that their nuclear imports are not used to develop nuclear arms. Olt isolated India from nuclear trade with the rest of the world.
However, in 2008 when the Indo-US Bilateral Civil Nuclear Agreement was signed, the US facilitated lifting of the NSG trade restrictions against India. NSG waiver to India. The NSG waiver to India was granted in September 2008 after an intense debate. The participating countries took note of India's nuclear-related activities and appreciated its commitments to non-proliferation over all these years including the 20 years between India's first nuclear test in 1974 and the latter in 1998 while it had definitely possessed the nuclear arsenal. O The NSG was satisfied and convinced that India would finalise the separation plan for its civilian nuclear facilities that shall be open to the IAEA safeguards and would accept the Additional Protocol. The waiver was based on a formal pledge by India that it would not share sensitive nuclear technology or material with others, will uphold its voluntary moratorium on testing nuclear weapons NSG operates by consensus. O al its current members are signatories to Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. India got an exemption from the NSG for nuclear imports in 2008, following the civil nuclear deal with the U.S., despite not being a signatory to the NPT. O In 2010, US declared its support for India's "full membership" of the group, but things have not moved far since.
India's membership in N SG: *Any state that conducts exports appearing on the Guidelines may apply for NSG membership *A potential member is evaluated on its proliferation record, Oadherence to international nonproliferation treaties and agreements, and national export controls. All existing members must approve an applicant for it to join the regime. India's membership is one of the important issues facing NSG in the immediate future. There is, of course, also the issue of further expansion of the NSG in the coming years, which needs to be looked into by the NSG members. Factors that need to be considered by the NSG Participating Governments (PGs) while considering admission of new States were last finalized by the NSG members during their 2001 Aspen Plenary.
Criteria to admission in NSG : A new Participating Government should: 1.be able to supply items covered by the Annexes to Parts 1 and 2 of the Guidelines; 2.adhere to and act in accordance with the Guidelines; 3.have in force a legally-based domestic export control system which gives effect to the commitment to act in accordance with the Guidelines; 4.Be a party to the NPT, the Treaties of Pelindaba, Rarotonga, Tlatelolco or Bangkok or an equivalent international nuclear non-proliferation agreement, and in full compliance with the obligations of such agreement(s), and, as appropriate, have in force a full-scope safeguards agreement with the IAEA. 5. Be supportive of international efforts towards non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and of their delivery vehicles. Countries with nuclear programs outside the NSG India, Israel, Pakistan, North Korea. *US(in 2010), France(2010), UK: supports India's NSG membership.
Time to shift focus from land to water productivity in farming' [TH] A report released by the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) OTitled Water Productivity Mapping of Major Indian Crops Othe report is part of a research project with ICRIER, mapping a water atlas for 10 major crops rice, wheat, maize, red gram or tur, chickpea or channa, sugarcane, cotton, groundnut, rapeseed-mustard and potato. These together occupy more than 60% of the country's gross cropped area It says: Indian agriculture needs to stop being "obsessed with land productivity and instead start worrying about water productivity Given that Indian agriculture uses almost 80% of all the country's water resources, which are increasingly under stress, changing the objective of agriculture development to increasing productivity per unit of water, especially irrigation water, is crucial The stark differences between land and water productivity are seen in rice and sugarcane cultivation the report says. o Punjab reports the highest land productivity for rice, producing four tonnes per hectare. However, it only produces 0.22 kg of rice for every metre cube of irrigation water o Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh, on the other hand, produce 0.75 and 0.68 kg for the same amount of water. However, low irrigation coverage results in low land productivity in these States. Jharkhand has only 3% of its land under irrigation.
In a first, WHO recommends quadrivalent influenza vaccine H a s aalar egacslod o cal ana Sanofi Pasteur's injectable influenza vaccine (FluQuadri) containing two A virus strains H1N1 and H3N2 and two B virus strains Victoria and Yamagata for active immunisation of adults of age 18 to 64 years was approved in May last year by the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI). The application for the paediatric indication is under review by the DCGI and final approval is expected by the end of this month. (FDA) in 2013; it is licensed in 26 countries. Despite the high number of infections and mortality each year, India does not have in place a national O Sanofi's quadrivalent influenza vaccine was licensed for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Issues in Indian context OPregnant mothers, children aged below five and young people with asthma, cardiovascular disease, O The Ministry of Health issues only H1N1 vaccination guidelines for different vulnerable groups including O "If you want to reduce the influenza burden in adults, then we must target children as they act as policy for influenza immunisation diabetes and high blood pressure are at a greater risk of infection and death. healthcare workers reservoirs," "Influenza can be seasonal or pandemic
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