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Important treaties and conventions : part 1
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Montreal protocol, Vienna convention, Vienna convention etc discusses

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  1. Important Conventions and treaties: In Environment and Ecology


  2. Kyoto protocol It is an international treaty, Negotiated under UNFCOC Adopted in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Kyoto protocol came into force in 2005 only after required number of Annex 1 Countries ratified it. 192 parties have ratified the protocol (191 states and one regional economic integration organization). The United States has not; it dropped out in 2001 The main feature of the Protocol is that it established legally binding commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases for parties that ratified the Protocol. The commitments were based on the Berlin Mandate, which was a part of UNFCCC negotiations leading up to the Protocol. establishment of commitments for the reduction of greenhouse gases that are legally binding for Annex I countries ( US, France, Japan etc) is the most important point of Kyoto Protocol These countries had pledged to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000. Annex Il countries are (sub group of annex and technology to the developing countries. . 1)required togive financial assistance


  3. Non Annex- Developing countries like India, Brazil, China They don't have binding targets to reduce green house gas emission, although they are encouraged to do it It gives the list of 7 Green House gases that are responsible for the whole problem 1. Carbon dioxide (CO2); Methane (CH4); Nitrous oxide (N20) i.e. Killer Gas & water vapor; Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs); Per fluorocarbons (PFCs); Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) Nitrogen Trifluoride NF3 (Added recently in Doha COP 2012) Kyoto Protocol allows three mechanisms to do so i. Carbon Trading ii. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) iii. Joint Implementation (JI) Q. Recently held COP 23 meeting? presided over by which country?


  4. Agenda 21 . Agenda 21 is a non-binding, voluntarily Action Plan for the UN .Related with sustainable development. It has been affirmed and modified at subsequent UN conferences and MDGs has been a special product of Agenda 21. It is a product of Earth Summit (UN Conference on Environment and Development) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992 The "21" in Agenda 21 refers to the 21st Century It is an action agenda for the UN, other multilateral organizations, and individual governments around the world that can be executed at local, national, and global levels. It aims to tackle environmental, social and economic problems around the world. Believed the best way to find solutions to problems is to do so at the local level. Many Local Authorities have Local Agenda 21" (LA21) policies. . . .


  5. Q. With reference to 'Agenda 21, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements: 1. It is a global action plan for sustainable development. 2. It originated in the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002 Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only .(b) 2 only . (c) Both 1 and 2 . (d) Neither 1 nor2


  6. Vienna convention . It is multilateral environment agreement . It is a Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer served as a framework for efforts to protect the globe's ozone layer. The Vienna Convention was adopted in 1985 and entered into force on 22 September, 1988. It became the first convention of any kind to receive universal ratification. It has been ratified by 197 states as well as European Union. .Later countries of the world agreed the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone .The objective is to adopt legislative or administrative measures against activities likely to have adverse effects on the ozone layer. However, it does not include legally binding reduction goals for the use of CFCs, the main chemical agents causing ozone depletion. .These are laid out in the accompanying Montreal Protocol.


  7. Montreal protocol: . The Montreal Protocol (a protocol to Vienna Convention for the Protection of Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. It was agreed on 26 August 1987 in Montreal, Canada and entered into force on 26 August 1989. It is legally binding India accepted this protocol along with its London Amendment in September 1992 It aims at phasing out : Chlorofluorocarbons, Hydro chlorofluorocarbons, methyl chloroform Due to its universality, this international agreement has helped in recovering the ozone hole in Antarctica. Under it production and consumption. In 2017 Kigali, Rwanda accepted an amendment to the Montreal Protocol that will see developed countries reduce their use of HFCs from 2019 and phase out by 2040s. And is binding on countries . .