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Important treaties and convention: part 3
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Minamata convention, wetlands, Cartagena protocol etc

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  1. Important Conventions and Treaties In environment and ecology - part3

  2. Cartagena protocol Also known as biosafety protocol is an international treaty governing the movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, and specifically focusing on transboundary movements (from one country to another) Adopted in 2000 as a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Came into force in 2003. Genetically Modified Organisms can be regulated under this protocol It creates an advanced informed agreement (AIA) procedure that requires exporters to seek consent from importing countries before the first shipment of LMOs meant to be introduced into the environment (e.g. seeds for planting, fish for release, and microorganisms for bioremediation. It establishes an internet-based "Biosafety Clearing-House" to help countries exchange scientific, technical, environmental and legal information about LMOs

  3. Q. The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety administers: 1. Biosafety Clearing-House 2. Global Environment Facility 3. Import and Export of Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) Select the correct option from the codes given below: . [A] Only1 [B] Only 1 & 3 [C] Only 1 & 2 [D] 1, 2 & 3

  4. MINAMATA CONVENTION ON MERCURY: It is an international treaty signed in 2013. Aims to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds The Convention is named after the Japanese city Minamata, where serious health damage occurred as a result of mercury pollution in the mid-20th Century. Minamata is known worldwide due to Minamata disease, a neurological disorder caused by mercury poisoning. The disease was discovered in 1956. Disease was severe enough in cats that they came to be called "dancing cat fever. The convention has come into force from August 16, 2017. India has signed the treaty on 30 September 2014 and has agreed to phase out mercury within six to 10 years. Global Environment Facility (GEF) is the financial mechanism for Minamata Convention. . . Q. india ratified the treaty?? where was first meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Minamata Convention on Mercury (Mercury COP1) was held??

  5. Ramsar convention: Ramsar Convention is an international treaty formally known as Convention on Wetlands of International Importance. india is signatory. It is not a regulating entity and does not impose restrictions on nations and landowners. The RAMSAR Secretariat is based at the headquarters of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in Gland, Switzerland. It was signed on 2 February 1971 at Ramsar in Iran. That date is celebrated as World . Wetland Day now It aims conservation and sustainable utilization of wetland provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. . India became a contracting party to the Ramsar Convention in October 1981 and designated Chilika Lake (Odisha) and Keoladeo National Park (Rajasthan) as its first two Ramsar Sites. In India 26 sites are Ramsar site, which are spread across all over India. Ex. Wular Lake in Jammu and Kashmir Ashtamudi Wetland in Kerala, Deepor Beel in Assam, Nal Sarovar in Gujarat. Vembanad-Kol Wetland (Largest Wetland of India),Loktalk lake Manipur etc.

  6. Montreux Record Montreux Record under the Ramsar Convention is a register of wetland sites It is a list of Wetlands of International Importance where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference. It is maintained as part of the Ramsar List. . The Montreux Record was established by Recommendation of the Conference of the Contracting Parties(1990). Sites may be added to and removed from the Record only with the approval of the Contracting Parties in which they lie. Currently, two wetlands of India are in Montreux record viz. Keoladeo National Park, Rajasthan and Loktak Lake, Manipur. Further, Chilka lake was placed in the record but was later removed from it. .

  7. Q. Which of the following statement is correct 1. Ramsar sites are declared as per the recommendation of the Environment Ministry of the respective countries. 2. The country with the highest number of Sites is the United Kingdom at 170 and the country with the greatest area of listed wetlands is Bolivia. a. Only 1 b. Only 2 c. Both 1 and 2 d. None of the above

  8. Answer: c Explanation: There are around 2100 Ramsar sites around the world of which maximum are in UK. The Largest area covered by Ramsar Sites is in Canada.

  9. Q. Which of the statement is correct: 1. Kolleru is brackish water lake. 2. It is designated as a wetland of international importance under the international Ramsar Convention. a. Only 1 b. Only 2 c. Both d. None

  10. Answer: b Explanation: Kolleru Lake is one of the largest freshwater lakes in India located in state of Andhra Pradesh. Kolleru is located between Krishna and Godavari delta. The lake serves as a natural flood-balancing reservoir for these two rivers.