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8th January, 2017: Editorial Analysis of The Hindu and other Newspapers
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Today's lesson covers the Editorials from The Hindu, Indian Express and Livemint. The topics discussed are- EPW- Open defecation in rural India, MDR-TB and how Sri-Lanka is fighting against Chronic Kidney disorder after successfully eradicating Malaria.

Deepanshu Singh is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Deepanshu Singh
Faculty- Indian Polity and Current Affairs| UPSC CSE Reserve list 2015| Consultant-G.O.I. Loves Geography Teaching since 2015

U
Unacademy user
Ma'am Delhi university ki B.A honours sociology ki Cutoff kya rehti h?
Vanmala Ramesh
5 months ago
Last year the fifth cut off list was 91 percent
In the present world where both men and women are considered equal, independence on the sexuality needs to be given utmost importance. As per recent surveys on violence against women, being illiterate(both men and women) is closely related to sexual crimes and violences. Measures : 1) Education: Children needs to be educated on giving equal importance to women, sometimes even greater importance. This was included in traditional education system but most of the modern systems lack this moral education at secondary level where it is much required. So the education policy should be framed in such a way that these moral education should be continued even in secondary and higher secondary level of education.2) Economical status of women: Women tends to tolerate domestic violence , because of lack of proper livelihood if they were to live alone, so proper measures should be taken to ensure these divorcee with proper employment.Last but not least, when rule of moral fails, rule of fear needs to be implemented to maintain the order, Stringent punishments needs to be implemented to create a fear among men so that their attitude will change.
Kindly review :)
the last statement is of utmost importance,maintened a very good flow
Thank You Ashvini :)
Rohit Mattu
3 years ago
:) clear and crisp and last line mashallah ..kya baat :) and review mine one strictly :)
Shubham Sagar
3 years ago
Short and at point.. great answer Vignesh :)
Thank you Subham :)
Roobitha Masanam
3 years ago
Good answer vignesh.. But still expecting more from view.. could have added some more points :)
Thank you Roobitha :) I was just trying to reduce the content that's why am not able to mention more :)
Urvashi Yadav
3 years ago
Precisely Written. Can also add the need to change the policing structure :)
Thank you Urvashi :), Yes actually our policing structure is good ,we have provision for better ratio of Men:women police, but it is not implemented properly due to lack of human resources :)
Gaurav Sharma
3 years ago
Very good answer Vignesh, you have covered issues and views/ suggestions to change mens' attitude!!
Urvashi Yadav
3 years ago
True. Lack of effective implementation is major cause of many problems :)
Pranali K
3 years ago
I find first point is excellent but second point is not directly relevant to the question as they have asked measures to change male attitude not how we should work on women empowerment. what say???
Thank you for the review Pranali :), Actually increased economic status of women will surely change the attitude of men and if some compensation has to be give to the divorcee women , then surely it will put an economical pressure on the men, so now he will think twice before doing anything bad as he has to pay for it too.
Nicely drafted Vignesh. You are doing well. Learing from your answers as well. Please review mine.
Hardik Siroha
3 years ago
Hey Vignesh, your first point is really good.However after it you deviated a little, if you see question talks about changing attitude of males so i believe it should have been written as GS4 paper question.Still overall arguments and body is really nice :)
Thank you for the review Hardik :)
Deeps Leelar
3 years ago
Nice points vignesh ... Please review mine also if any suggestions most welcome
Nice points Vignesh especially the women's livelihood point is notable
Hi Vignesh..Good analysis.But you can have added diversity in opinion. Rest fine. Plz review mine answer too..:)
Raunak Sinha
3 years ago
I think things like cooperative societies for women...small scale home based businesses...skill development program... are some other things that you could have included...in economic freedom...the answer is precise and well written :)
Good point raised by Raunak. I will surely take them into my notebook..:)
Raunak Sinha
3 years ago
Vikash read the answer next to Vignesh's too and combine them..you will have a perfect answer. Though using some data in the intro would be my go to method. :)
Sure Raunak. Thanks for your valuable suggestion. I'm on it.
Vk
Vinoth kumar
3 years ago
vignesh , i think you might want to add some important points like "sexual education" in schools (though there has been opposition to it ) which i think is must one to be added in the syllabus of schools because it helps them change their perspective over women to large extent , lack of sexual education is one of the important factors that leads to make them choose the wrong path in their young age . 2) stringent laws should be strictly followed no matter what ,even the POSCO act has some loop holes (like stated in yesterday's news paper ) 3) parents must spend some time talking with their children and inculcating them on being a responsible citizens to this country and how to respect women . 4) however , despite taking all the measures , respecting nature is something that comes inherently from each individual . if we succeeded in making them feel responsible , then every women will be treated right .
Yes Vinoth you are correct :) We can take lot of measures but ultimately everything is in the hands of people like us. To be frank, we should accept that every one knows everything. Do you think the people involved in Nirbhaya case or the recent incident in Bangalore did not not know what they were doing and it is wrong? They exactly knew what they were doing and even knew the consequences of it but still they did it because they knew they can easily escape and even if they get caught the punishments are not that severe. the recent example is the "Soumya case", the convict escaped from capital punishment because of loop holes in law.So in my point of view we can educate them on good and bad but the actual result will be obtained only by the strict laws, capital punishment should be given for brutal rape and so on.
Vk
Vinoth kumar
3 years ago
vignesh , yes you are right but punishments can't alone curb sexual violation against women , ( may be to some extent punishments do work but not in all cases ) and so does education to youngsters . after all it is all in the hands of society and the way how men and women behave in it what matters .
Hello guys, If possible please review my answer in PIB summary as well :)
Rahul Omble
3 years ago
Rape is not a just women's issue, It's about men who stop behave like a human and being and behaving like an animal.There is the need to change their attitude towards women is only the "prey" And make them aware of their human nature by different ways:1.Religion:a).No culture no religion allow violence against women.b).Propaganda of religious perspective towards women.2.Education: a).There is a primary education of equality but also too necessary at high school level.b).The attitudinal change will reflect the only how a family raises a son?3.Enterprise: a)Need to CCTV system at premises. b)As per SC direction internal grievances committee.4.Government: a)Ensure women do not suffer from disclosure by filing case.b)Time bar for cases about sexual offense-"Justice delayed Justice denied"c) Severe punishment is necessary to create a fear about sexual offense.d)The more female ratio is necessary to investigate in this matter -"Women understand women".Women's emancipation necessary for the nation that's why our constitution incorporated article 21 which held dignity of women has to be maintained.Women who are a sufferer from the long back now need of the hour for the attitudinal change.Our nation at its growing period at that time women workforce is required to achieve the ambitions and vision of out nation to become a world power.Best and secure workplace is the primary necessity for women.If moral not work then there is the necessity to create a fear for sake of women and ultimately for the nation.Please review):
"To call women a weaker sex is a libel; It is Man's injustice to Woman" Mahatma Gandhi. This injustice is done by most of the men to every women he crossing in life. Pitifully women themselves believes them as weaker sex. Ex. a girl ends her life if a morphed photo of her becomes viral rather than being strong and fighting against it. But the problem is not only with girl, it is with man and our total society. Attitudinal change is needed at the grossroot level. In schools: 1) Moral education emphasising gender equality 2) Sexual education at adolescent age for both boys and girls 3) Self defence practice for girls. 4) Awareness about Sexual offences and their punishments at a tender age. In home: 1) Parents should not be partial between male and female child. 2) Friendly attitude from parents so that a girl can share her problem with parents Media: 1) Movies and advertisements should stop potraying women as an Object 2) Strict censorship of scences that promotes stalking, eve teasing etc., Govt: 1) Stringent laws and punishment against sexual violences, eg. Posco act, 2) Spreading awareness among people. Sexual violence is an infectious disease which cannot be cured by a single drug. Society, Family, Schools, Colleges, Women And most importantly MEN should bring about a change in attitude by themselves.
Roobitha Masanam
3 years ago
kindly review friends
Hi Roobitha, Nice answer. You have mentioned lot of great points :) But one suggestion from my side is, some generalised points which you have mentioned are not necessary. Including acts like POSCO is very good. You can also mention regarding Martial rape as well . Keep writing and reviewing :)
Shubham Sagar
3 years ago
Hi Roobitha, great way of presentation and some really great and unique points covered, great answer
Roobitha Masanam
3 years ago
Thank you vignesh.. I'll work on it:)
Roobitha Masanam
3 years ago
Thank you Shubham
Rohit Mattu
3 years ago
Good answer Introduction and Conclusion is very good and really advertise like things are most responsible for that bad impact on teenagers...and then in school and the chain continues..
Roobitha Masanam
3 years ago
correct rohit.. we have to reform ourselves..
Gaurav Sharma
3 years ago
HI Roobitha, Nice answer, your covered all the causes with a conclusion. One suggestion :- You can write more suggestions to change mens' attitude towards it.
Roobitha Masanam
3 years ago
sure gaurav.. Thank you:)
Very well written, your answer is to the point. Introduction could have been a little better. I know it is easier said than done. Overall very nice. Please review mine.
Roobitha Masanam
3 years ago
Thanks Ravi.. I'll sure work on it
Very good answer. I will try to add some point in my notes from yours (hope you don't mind it.:D..) Plz review my answet too.
Raunak Sinha
3 years ago
Hi...the answer is good...all except the censorship part...sex scenes and other things are censored but does that abate sexual offense? Also, it is POCSO, not POSCO. Great attempt though :)
Roobitha Masanam
3 years ago
Thank you vikas.. No issues anyway: )
Roobitha Masanam
3 years ago
Thank you raunak for correcting pocso :) I have quoted about stalking and things like that.. Teenagers mostly imitates those kinds of scenes which leads to sexual offense later..
Raunak Sinha
3 years ago
Yeah...I get your drift...but the censor board is already very stringent so they will cut of constructive flattery also this way :P
Roobitha Masanam
3 years ago
Accepted.. Filmmakers should be much more responsible..
Arpana Patankar
3 years ago
Hi Roobitha, excellent answer, especially the inclusion of quote and example. Please review my answer as well.
Violence against women is one of the most systematic and prevalent human rights abuses in the world. It is directed against a woman because she is a woman or affects women disproportionately. Such gender-based violence against women is a form of discrimination and deeply rooted in power imbalances and structural relationships of inequality between women and men. Violence against women is a global phenomenon, occurring in every continent, country and culture. Factors associated with increased risk of perpetration of violence include low education, child maltreatment or exposure to violence in the family, harmful use of alcohol, attitudes accepting of violence and gender inequality. Measures to address violence- 1) it is important to enact legislation and develop policies that: address discrimination against women; promote gender equality; support women; and help to move towards more peaceful cultural norms,also we need to empower woman. 2) Men's anti-violence programs can also help. 3) Partner with , UN agencies, civil society organizations and other institutions to advocate for ending violence . Women are equally competent. Nowadays, women are even ahead of men in many socio-economic activities.
Hi Jyoti, Nice points :) you can also mention some other measures like education. Overall the answer structure as well as the answer is good :)
And what is that men's Anti Violence program?
Jyoti Singh
3 years ago
Hi Vignesh, As for Men's Anti Violence Programme- Programme for men who uses violence.Basically,we do talk about women empowerment and this or that,How relevant it would be if Men himself changes his attitude towards woman.This is what Men's Anti violence programme is.
Is there any real program currently?
Shubham Sagar
3 years ago
Hi Jyoti, some great points in ur answer and i would just suggest that since the question is about men's attitude so there should be some suggestions from that perspective too... All in all this is a great answer
Jyoti Singh
3 years ago
Yes Vignesh,Such programmes are prevalent in US.....!!!
Oh Okay, Thank you so much for these informations :) Keep it up :)
Jyoti Singh
3 years ago
Yeaah.Welcome Always.....!!!
Roobitha Masanam
3 years ago
Nice answer jyoti. Had the same doubt as vignesh...
Jyoti Singh
3 years ago
Thanx Roobitha.As for doubt, just go and Google it.You will be clear on your doubts.....!!!
Roobitha Masanam
3 years ago
Ok Jyoti :)
Gaurav Sharma
3 years ago
HI Jyoti, nice answer with very good points to change mens' attitude, covering the question, however I feel policies and agencies are there also govt is working with UN agencies but proper implementations is not there and cases are pending in the court so need a good example to set by which men will think before commiting such act.
Jyoti Singh
3 years ago
Hi !! Gaurav,Do not you think ,Government need to enact such legislature??
Gaurav Sharma
3 years ago
Yes, I do think that there is need to enact some strict laws , like the one was enacted in 2013 (criminal law amendment act) After Nirbhaya case., But not implemented properly as many cases pending. Also special courts were established back then which were not that efficient and took more than 6 months to announce the judgement. What do you think?
Your mesures are very nice jyoti.points regarding the men anti violation programs and UN point is good
Hi Jyoti..well pointed out but i think instead focusing on measure to be taken in change of male attitude (as question ask for it) you consume more on elaboration of issue. Measure got shortened.Keep writing. Plz review mine answer too.:)
Raunak Sinha
3 years ago
Good answer...but redundant lines in the introduction. You used up too many words in telling that offense against women is prevailent rather than using them in providing more ideas for initiatives.
When the Nirbhaya documentary was telecast by BBC, noted writer and Rajya Sabha MP Javed Akhtar in his speech said that we need to show it to our society and identify ourselves, who we are. Recent Bengaluru incident has provided us with the opportunity once again. For a civilisation that worships its rivers, cows, books and even the country as mother, we need to introspect thinks how did we get this far. For a society that still blames the raped and not the raper, the need is to address its attitude towards the women: 1. Educating children about gender equality and discrimination faced by women 2. Going beyond open letters and online petitions to the rural India and discussing the issue at hand 3. Women Empowerment. Role of Mother- the first teacher of a child is crucial. Schemes like PM Ujjwala Yojnaa, Beti Bachao Beti Padhao etc are right policy interventions. 4. Through Cinema women are participating in their own objectification because commercial agenda dictates. Responsible cinema needs to address such filthy acts in the name of entertainment that has impact over the psychic of its audience The NGOs and civil society needs take the torch as stricter laws are not the answer, persistent efforts are.
Shubham Sagar
3 years ago
Kindly review
Hi Shubham, Very good points :) Especially the point about Cinema is rather a different and a good perspective which most of us did not mention, Keep it up :)
Rohit Mattu
3 years ago
Bro very good dimensional touch :) but i suggest you to indrooduce your answer in a good way .. not poiting at anyone and any particular thing .. :) rest is your choice ..
Roobitha Masanam
3 years ago
Widely covered answer shubham.. Keep it up..
Gaurav Sharma
3 years ago
Hi Shubham, nice answer with our own views, good one! However as per question suggest more points to change Mens' attitude against it.
Well written.
Good answer subham. I think that Introduction with example could have been short.Point taken well. Plz review my answer too.:)
Shubham Sagar
3 years ago
Thanks Vignesh :)
Shubham Sagar
3 years ago
Thanks Rohit for the suggestion i would definitely take care :)
Shubham Sagar
3 years ago
Thanks Roobitha for the review )
Shubham Sagar
3 years ago
Yes Gaurav u r ryt even I feel i should have added few more points :) got some gud ones from other answers :) thanks for the review
Shubham Sagar
3 years ago
Thanks Ravi for reviewing :)
Shubham Sagar
3 years ago
Thanks Vikash for reviewing :) point noted and now going to ur answer :)
India, is a land of contradictions.It worships Goddess for knowledge,wealth and strength yet ranks among worst in gender and sexual violence.South Asia as a whole is considered to be worst place for women.Sexual violence is defined as a “violence” perpetrated against women having sexual abusive overtones.Unfortunately, as a society and country our focus has only been on enacting legislations.We have forgotten that “Law only protects when its protected” i.e, “Dharmo Rakhsyite Rakhsyaet”. The battle has to fought on ideological,moral and societal grounds.The methods are: 1.Leveraging Mass Media: Mass media portrayal of women has been as “sexual object”. The increased “objectification” is visible everywhere.From latest rap songs to deodorants ads.Bollywood’s item songs and sexist jokes of TV shows have propagated a wrong image.This need to be rectified.Same tool and platform can be leveraged to bring attitudinal change like movie Dangal. 2.Child Grooming: The notions like “boys don't cry” among family reinforce a sexist attitude.In some families women are given food after male.Such practises has to be contained.So that men start to see women as equals and partners in development. 3.Education: Morality has to be an indispensable part of education.Not only should children be taught to stand up against sexual violence but they should also be made aware of sexual violences.In such regard sexual education is pivotal. Swami Vivekanda said “A bird can never fly with single wing, similarly a society can’t develop without its women”. In order to become a new superpower India must ensure that 50% of its citizens are partner in growth.This is only possible when they are given protection against such heinous crimes.
Hardik Siroha
3 years ago
Hey guys do review :)
Introduction and Conclusion is great and interesting. Nice points overall but by suggestions are to avoid or replace words such as ".Bollywood’s item songs and sexist jokes of TV shows" . The Child grooming point was really nice. Swami Vivekananda point is notable and catchy and finally i feel you can give more points which give emphasis on the change of attitude of male towards sexual violence
Rohit Mattu
3 years ago
Very good answer Bro :) really good review mine one tooo :0
  1. EDITORIAL ANALYSIS OF NEWSPAPERS IN LESSTHAN 10 MINUTES 8th January,2017 resented E shu chrome


  2. ABOUT ME . Educator @ unacademy B.Tech. Comp. Sc. (Hons.) NTSE and Debating Champion Appeared for CSE and IFoS mains Interests: Music, Quizzing, Fitness & Photography RATE REVIEW RECOMMEND https://unacademy.com/user/deepanshu.n.singh


  3. EDITORIALS COVERED IN TODAY'S LESSON Economic and Political Weekly (EPW) - Understanding Open Defecation in Rural India e flindu -Sri Lanka's next big fight The Hindu " India's refusal to scale up bedaquiline is really the world's problem India's refusal to scale up bedaquili ne is really the world's problem


  4. QUESTIONS FOR ANSWER WRITING PRACTICE " What can be done change male attitudes towards sexual violence against women?. Comment.


  5. EPW: UNDERSTANDING OPEN DEFECATION IN RURAL INDIA (GS-1/2) Study Why so many rural Indians defecate in the open rather than use affordable pit latrines? And how Future rural sanitation programmes must address these issues o Hard facts-2011 Census found that 70% of rural households do not have a toilet or latrine GOI 2012c-worse than rural sub-Saharan Africa In rural Bangladesh, only 5% of people defecate in the open. In rural China, 2% of people defecate in the open (UNICEF and WHO 2012) M N Srinivas points out in The Remembered Village, village children learn what--and who is polluting from a very early age Adverse consequences of Open Defecation Adverse consequences of Open ID o Spreads bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, including diarrhoea, polio, cholera and hookworm and is an important cause of child stunting (Spears 2013) o Also a classic example of a "negative externality" in which one person's behaviour hurts other people. o Makes women vulnerable to sexual assaults Study points out-that widespread open defecation in rural India is on account of beliefs, values, and norms about purity, pollution, caste, and untouchability- rather than attributable to relative material or educational deprivation


  6. Contd. Pg-2 o Findings and reasons for high rates of Open defecation- o Patriarchy- seen as promoting purity and strength (masculinity), particularly by men, who typically decide how money is spent in rural households. o Biggest barrier- Pit emptying- equate manual pit emptying with scavenging and other degrading forms of labour traditionally done by Dalits., as Affordable latrines, such as those recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and subsidised by the Indian government, have pits that need to be emptied manually o Lack of water is not to blame for India's open defecation rates is the fact that many households that have piped water nevertheless defecate in the open. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2005) found that only about a fifth of rural Indian households that do not defecate in the open use a pit latrine. (latrines built under the Total Sanitation Campaign, the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, and the Swachh Bharat Mission are pit latrines.) o SQUAT- (Sanitation Quality, Use, Access and Trends) Surprisingly- open defecation is not only socially acceptable in places where almost everyone does it, it is seen as a wholesome activity that is associated with health, strength, and masculine vigour and a chance of socialization for women who feel bounded in their homes- reinforces this practice! o words "dirty" and "clean" are ritual concepts as well as physical ones-misconceptions- most see latrines as pollating in a ritual sense, no matter how physicall clean they are kept distaste for latrines has to do with the imbortance of maintaining purit in the home. IVWhen talk about defecating in the oben str od to walk far ome betore derecatin


  7. Contd. Pg-3 o High Costs of Large Pit latrines- Swachh Bharat Mission subsidises latrines at 12,000, a Bangladeshi pit latrine costs only about 3,000. Despite this, people refer to Indian government latrines as "temporary" "fake," or kaccha-large pits are considered as an asset to wealthy rural family o Most people wrongly believe that government-provided soak pits will fill up in a matter of months, rather than years, and will require frequent emptying. Mechanical emptying of these pits is impractical because the pit is designed for water to seep out and for faeces to become compacted- not possible through-Sewage tracks. o Govt recommends- pit be left unused for 6 months to decompose- Under the law, hiring someone to empty a decomposed pit is not considered manual scavenging. The need to allow pits to decompose before emptying means that each latrine needs two pits ( only 2.5% have two pits) o Associated with Untouchability- Manual Scavenging o Women's attitudes-Notion of Sexual assault on women-study points-43% reported molestation attempt while going o women reject affordable latrines for the same reasons that men do: they, too, are concerned about ritual pollution o distracts policy makers to address the real issue of caste-based social divisons- common slogan in Uttar Pradesh is to defecate, while, 7.6% reported the same while going to a market! and pit-emptying "daughters-in-law and daughters should not go outside, make a toilet in your bouse- stifling for women, and also impression that latrine sa na se


  8. Contd. Pg-4 o Religion based evidences-(Hindus and Muslims)- India's 2005 NFHS finds that rural Muslim households are 19 percentage points less likely to defecate in the open than rural Hindu households, despite the fact that they are poorer on average Geruso and Spears 2015)- also show that Muslims are also more likely to use the latrines that they own- strong untouchability notion among Hindus o However-not better than other parts of the World as rural Indian Muslims live amongst a Hindu majority for whom open defecation is normative, and for whom affordable latrines are counternormative Suggested measures for the Government and communit o Rural Sanitation Policy Must Address Untouchability-Manual scavenging law not implemented strictly-made illegal nt as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act in some states in 1993, and in all states in 2013-not Prohibition of Employme a single person has been convicted for hiring a manual scavenger since the law took effect (Hindu 2013) Economic growth-mar eventually allow more rural households to slow v switch from open de ecation to septic tanks arge pits. o More spending per household on large pit latrines- under the Swachh Bharat Mission and still see a net increase in the government budget, due to future increases in human capital and tax revenues resulting from a healthier population (Lawson and Spears-2016) o Educating and publicizing- Govt and health care workers- Anganwadi o Reforming Govt sectors-Indian Railways flout the law by hiring Dalits to do dangerous and demeaning work, like unblocking sewers etc. Social attitudes-Upper caste/ anganwadi workers should lead by example-emptying pits on their own-annihilation of caste- Both Ambedkar and Gandhi advocated that upper caste people do their own dirty work as a step towards dismantling the caste system


  9. TH:- Sri Lanka's next big fight (GS-2/3) HowSn lankais dealingwith Cbronic KidneyDisease of Unknown Etiology (CKDs) o Why Sri-Lanka is in the international health scenario? 1. The International Society of Nephrologists ISN) recently honouredSnLankan Prest entMarthm ala n senator his "extraordinary contribution" to the fight against Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology (CKDu) 2 Recently,WHO declared Sri Lanka"Malana-tree" Why Sri-Lanka is concerned about CKDu? 1.20,828 patients and 5000 deaths per year due to CKDu, so it is a "National Disaster" 2.CKDuis a ''silent cond rior" means only in the nnal stages of the disease you will come to know that you are having the diseases "It is like this- when you drive a car, you won't feel the petrol running out until the vehicle stops, unless you check periodically" 3.Sn-Lanka's President is from one of the affected provinces.<North Central Province> o What they found out so far about CKDu? It was reported first from Central America-Sugarcane farming areas Then in Srilanka-agricultural areas o In India from Andbra Pradesb-agricultural areas So it has a link with agriculture.


  10. TH:- Sri Lanka's next big fight (GS-2/3) How Sri Lanka is dealing with it? P 1.The President has setup a presidential task force 2.ISN Gardiner Fund (ISN.GF) to fight the disease globally too. 3 Expert ne brologists and Daysts and transplantation are needed or the treatment,but SnLanka needs atleast 1000 o 3.Expert nephrologists and Diahsis and transplantation are needed for the treatment, but Sri Lanka needs atleast 1000 nephrologists. 4 Strengthening its CKDu response mechanisms (COMMIA),so 400 Dialysis machines at present in the country. o What more can be done and how to prevent it? o There is not a proven fact that agrochemicals and contaminated water could be likely causes So government is focusing on providing good quality drinking water, o raising awareness about the risk of dehydration and o ensuring supervised use of agrochemicals and fertilisers. Public health workers are getting trained for it Infrastructure is being improved for it.