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DAILY THE HINDU NEWS ANALYSIS JUNE 10, 2017 By Jatin Verma, Educator, Unacademy. unacademy
3. Swiss support India's NSG bid Switzerland, the incoming chair of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), will support application for membership, but has left the door open for Pakistan to join as well. Swiss Line of argument:"We are of the view that it would contribute to strengthening global non- proliferation efforts if all countries having relevant nuclear technology and being suppliers of such technology were to become NSG members." The "Grossi process" mandates the former NSG chairperson and diplomat Rafael Grossi to build a consensus among all 48 countries of the NSG, many of which resisted India's membership bid at the Seoul plenary session in 2016, unless the country signs the Non- Proliferation Treaty. Seou plnary sesi 201 unles the country signs the No.
The 48 members of the NSG include the five nuclear weapon states, US, UK, France, China and Russia. The other 43 are signatories to the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). India is not a signatory to the NPT which it calls discriminatory. For years, India has been trying to gain entry into the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), that was formed in the aftermath of India's 1974 nuclear test with the aim of ensuring non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear technology Benefits ofNSG membership to India: 1. Access to technology for a range of uses from medicine to building nuclear power plants for India from the NSG which is essentially a traders' cartel. 2. Even f Inda today can buy power plants from the global market thanks to the one time N5G 2. Even if India today can buy power plants from the global market thanks to the one time NSG waiver in 2008, there are still many types of technologies India can be denied as it is outside the NSG. 3. With access to latest technology. India can commercialize the production of nuclear power equipment. 4. If India gets membership to the NSG, it can block Pakistan from its membership as entry into the grouping is by consensus only
5. Bioehtanol Blending Programme. Ethanol could be produced from paddy and wheat straw, bagasse, biomass, segregated municipal waste and bamboo. Vehicles with flexi-engines",which can use 100% ethanol or a mix of 22% ethanol with petrol or a blend of 15% ethanol with diesel, were available globally. BS-VI and Electric cars- Contradictory goals? Decision to implement Bharat Standard (BS)-VI emission norms, equivalent to the Euro- VI norms, by April 1, 2020 with a high investment and the goal to have 100% electric vehicles by 2030, he said it was not contradictory. While the 2030 mission was to make cars and scooters electric, we need diesel for commercial vehicles and buses. in
History of Emission Norms in India The first emission norms were introduced in India in 1991 for petrol and 1992 for diesel vehicles. Each stage specifies a certain limit on the pollutants released, which is controlled by: T the type of fuel made by the oil companies and the upgradations and [i] the type of fuel made by the oil companies and the upgradations and [ii] modifications made by the auto firms to their vehicles to control the pollutants released from the vehicle. From April 1995,mandatory fitment of catalytic converters in new petrol passenger cars sold in the four metros, Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai and Chennai along with supply of Unleaded Petrol (ULP) was affected. In the year 2000, passenger cars and commercial vehicles met Euro l equivalent The first Auto Fuel Policy was announced in August 2002 which laid down the Emission and Fuel Roadmap upto 2010. e From April 1995, mandatory fitment of catalytic converters in new petrol passenger
Bharat Stage IV vehicles issue: First fuel norms were introduced in India in 1991 First Auto Fuel Policy August 2002 laid down the Emission and Fuel Roadmap upto 2010. Mashelkar committee report for the auto-fuel policy Ratio of different pollutants in the Vehicular smoke? BS-IV engines sulphur content In the fuel less than 50 part per million (ppm). whereas BS-III ones can run on 350 ppmh fuel. -whereas B.S-IIlons can run on 350ppm fuel.
Particulate matter: sum of all solid and liquid particles suspended in air, many of which are hazardous. This complex mixture contains for instance dust, pollen, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. Future: Moving directly to Bharat Stage VI directly from Bharat Stage IV by 1st April 2020
Diesel Emission Norms (All figures in g/km) Emission BS-III 0.64 BS-IV 0.50 eURO 6 CO HC NOx HC+NOx 0.50 0.56 0.05 0.25 0.30 0.025 0.06 0.17 0.005 CO emissions Carbon Monoxide emissions HC emissions -Hydrocarbons (Petrol engines) NOx = Nitrogen Oxide (Diesel engines) PM = Particulate matter