# Environmental Science and Engineering (ES)

Candidates can choose from 29 subject papers in GATE 2022. One of the papers is Environmental Science and Engineering. Find the Environmental Science and Engineering Syllabus in detail here.

Environmental Science and Engineering (Code: ES) is one of the 29 subject papers offered in the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) 2022 exam.  The syllabus for the paper is fairly detailed and includes 9 sections. The entire syllabus, with all sections and subsections, is provided below:

## Section 1: Mathematics Foundation

Linear Algebra: Determinants and matrices, Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Systems of linear equations

Calculus: Tests for convergence, Continuity, Limit, Taylor series, Partial and total derivatives, Application of definite integral to obtain area and volume, Definite and indefinite integrals, Functions, Local maxima and minima, Differentiability

Probability and Statistics: Descriptive statistics, Measurement of central tendency,

Dispersion, Skewness and kurtosis, Probability concepts, Conditional probability,

Bayes theorem, Risk and reliability, Probability distributions, Correlation, Single and

multiple regression models, Hypothesis testing (t-test, F-test, chi-square test).

Differential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order ordinary differential equations (ODE), Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients, Laplace transform and its application in solving linear ODEs.

## Section 2: Environmental Chemistry

Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry: Covalent and ionic bonding; Chemical

equations, concentration and activity; Structure and chemistry of organic molecules;

Radioactivity of elements; Chemical equilibria; Thermodynamics and kinetics of

chemical reactions.

Principles of water chemistry: Water quality parameters and their measurement; Acid-

base equilibria; Buffer solution; Carbonate system; Solubility of gases in water; Complexation, precipitation, and redox reactions; Inorganic and organic contaminants in water and their speciation.

Soil chemistry: Organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, and sodium absorption ratio

Atmospheric Chemistry: Urban atmosphere—smog and particulate pollution; Composition of the atmosphere; Chemistry of stratosphere; Chemistry of ozone formation; Reactivity of trace substances in the atmosphere.

## Section 3: Environmental Microbiology

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms: Characteristics of diverse groups of microorganisms; Classification of microorganisms; Microbial diversity; Plant-microbe and soil-microbe interactions; Role of microorganisms in wastewater treatment, bioremediation and biogeochemical cycling.

Cell chemistry and cell biology: Structure of proteins, nucleic acid (DNA & RNA), lipids and

polysaccharides; Bonds in biomolecules; Stereoisomerism in biomolecules; Structure of cell;

Structure and function of cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall, outer membrane, glycocalyx,

chromosomes, endospores, storage products, mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Microbial metabolism: Anabolism and catabolism; Phosphorylation; Glycolysis; TCA cycle; Electron transport chain; Fermentation; Anaerobic respiration; Energy balances; Enzymes and Enzyme kinetics.

Growth and control of microorganisms: Types of culture media, Control of microbes using physical and chemical methods, Batch and continuous culture, Monod’s model, Effects of environmental factors on growth, Bacterial nutrition and growth, Specific growth rate and doubling time.

Microbiology and health: Indicator organisms; Pathogens and modes of transmission; Quantification of coliforms using MPN and membrane filtration techniques

## Section 4: Water Resources and Environmental Hydraulics

Global Water Resources: Structure, properties and distribution of water; Threats to water resources; Water quality; Water conservation.

Surface Water Resources: Hydrological cycle and water balance – precipitation, infiltration,

evapotranspiration, runoff; Flow hydrographs; Unit hydrographs; Stage-discharge relationship; Reservoir capacity; Reservoir and channel routing; Surface run-off models; Surface water management; Rain water harvesting and storage.

Groundwater Resources: Geologic formations as aquifers; Vadose and saturated zones; Confined and unconfined aquifers and their parameters – porosity, permeability, transmissivity and storage coefficient; Darcy’s law and applications; Steady state well hydraulics.

Environmental Hydraulics: Concepts of mechanics; Properties of fluids; Pressure measurement; Hydrostatic force on surfaces; Buoyancy and flotation; Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow through pipes; Pipe networks; Boundary layer theory; Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Kinematics of flow; Continuity, momentum and energy equations; Channel hydraulics – specific energy, critical flow, hydraulic jump, rapid and gradually varied flow; Design of lined and unlined channels.

## Section 5: Water & Wastewater Treatment and Management

Water and wastewater quality parameters; Eutrophication and thermal stratification in lakes; River pollution – Oxygen sag curve.

Water treatment methods – screening, sedimentation with and without coagulation, filtration, desalination, disinfection; Water distribution and storage

Point and nonpoint sources of wastewater; Population forecasting methods; Design of sewer and storm water sewers; Sewer appurtenances; Preliminary, primary, secondary and tertiary sewage treatment; Sludge generation, processing and disposal methods; Sewage farming.

Sources and characteristics of industrial effluents; Concept of Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETP); Wastewater recycling and zero liquid discharge.

Kinetics and reactor design: Mass and energy balance, Order and rate of reactions, Batch reactors, Completely mixed flow reactors, Plug flow reactors.

## Section 6: Air and Noise Pollution

Structure of the atmosphere; Natural and anthropogenic sources of pollution; Atmospheric sources, sinks, transport; Indoor air pollution; Effects on health and environment; Air pollution: gases and particulate matter; Air quality standards; Primary and secondary pollutants; Criteria pollutants, ambient and source standards, air quality indices, visibility.

Particulate pollutants: Measurement and control methods; Control of particulate air pollutants using gravitational settling chambers, cyclone separators, wet collectors, fabric filters (Bag-house filter), electrostatic precipitators (ESP).

Gaseous Pollutants: Measurement and control methods; Control of gaseous contaminants:

absorption, adsorption, condensation and combustion; Control of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons; Vapour-liquid and vapour-solid equilibria; Diffusion, Fick’s law and interfacial mass transfer.

Automotive emission controls, fuel quality, diesel particulate filters, catalytic convertors.

Air quality management:Point, line and area sources; Inventory; Influence of meteorology – wind rose diagrams, stability, mixing height, topography, dispersion modelling, monitoring.

Noise pollution: Sources; Health effects; Standards; Measurement and control methods.

## Section 7: Solid and Hazardous Waste Management

Municipal solid waste management: Sources, generation, characteristics, collection and

transportation, waste processing and disposal (including reuse options, biological methods, energy recovery processes and landfilling).

Integrated solid waste management; Waste hierarchy; Rules and regulations for solid waste

management in India.

Hazardous waste management: Characteristics, generation, fate of materials in the environment, treatment and disposal.

Soil contamination and leaching of contaminants into groundwater.

Management of biomedical waste, plastic waste and E-waste: Sources, generation and

characteristics; Waste management practices including storage, collection and transfer.

## Section 8: Global and Regional Environmental Issues

Global effects of air pollution – Greenhouse gases, global warming, climate change, urban heat islands, acid rain, ozone hole.

Ecology and various ecosystems; Biodiversity; Factors influencing increase in population, energy consumption, and environmental degradation.

## Section 9: Environmental Management and Sustainable Development

Environmental Management Systems; ISO14000 series; Environmental auditing: Environmental Impact Assessment; Life cycle assessment; Human health risk assessment.

Environmental Law and Policy – Objectives; Polluter pays principle, Precautionary principle; The Water and Air Acts with amendments; The Environment (Protection) Act (EPA) 1986; National Green Tribunal Act, 2010; National Environment Policy; Principles of International Law and International treaties.

Energy and Environment: Energy sources – overview of resources and reserves; Renewable and non-renewable energy sources; Energy-Environment nexus.

Sustainable Development: Definition and concepts of sustainable development; Sustainable

development goals; Hurdles to sustainability; Environment and economics