A McKinley (6,194 m)t A Elbrus (4,810 m) A Everest (8,848 m) (4,884 m) KosciuszkO A Kilimanjaro A (5,895 m) Puncak Jaya A AconcaguaA (6,961 m) (2,228 m) Vinson (4,892 m)
At trench Ocean floor destroyed - melted in mantle Oceanic crust heavier than continental crust *Ocean floor act like conveyor belt Ocean floor - cyclic process 300 ml years Mid-oceanic ridge Trench Ocean Subduction Continental ithosphere Oceanic lithosphere Cold Convection cell pwelling Hot Outer core Mantle Inner core
In which one of the following oceans the Diamantina Trench is located? a) Pacific Ocean b) Atlantic Ocean c) Indian Ocean d) Arctic Ocean Pacifle Ocean MARIANA TRENCH NORTH MARIANA ISLANDS DEEPEST , POINT PHILIPPINES AUSTRALIA
INDI OCEAN Google Maps AUSTRALIA DIAMANTINA TRENCH Perth 1,460 MILES
Palaeo-Magentism *Magnetism of rocks along MOR Magnetometer -Magnetic parallel stripes- normal and reverse magnetic profile * 1St Carlsberg ridge - Indian ocean Mid-oceanic ridge Oceanic crust Mantle
Molten lava get polarity geomagnetic field of that period-Solidify Ocean floor-magnetic tape Magma A. Period of normal magnetism Magma B. Period of reverse magnetismm Magma C. Period of normal magnetism
Convection cells = force behind drifting of continents Ridge Push Lithosphere Mantle Convection Cell Convection Cell Outer core Inner core
the Ocearn Floor Volcanic Island When volcanoes on the ocean floor erupt, they can create mountains so high that their peaks break the surface of the ocean. As the lava cools and hardens, an island forms Mid-Ocean ridge The mid-ocean ridge consists of many peaks along both sides of a central valley. This chain of undersea mountains runs all around the world. Continental slope A steady indine marks the continental slope. Continental slopes in the Pacific Ocean are Continental shelf This gradually sloping area width varies from just a few 1,300 kilometers from shore. borders each arth's oceans are thousands of kilometers wide. To show the width of the ocean floor in this illustration, the vertical and horizontal steeper than those in the Atlantic Ocean. Note: Because the kilmeters to as much as vertical scale is exaggerated, the continental slope in this illustration appears steeper than it realy is scales are not the same. The vertical scale, showing depth, has been stretched. The horizontal scale, showing distances, has been squeezed. Continental shelf Continental slope Mountains whose peaks do not break the surface of the ocean 6 water above them are E called seamounts Abyssal plain Thick layers of sediment, formed by the sunken remains of dead organisms from the surface cover these vast, flat plains These canyons in- clude the deepest spots on Earth. The Mariana Trench in the Pacific is 11 kilometers deep. Width of ocean: thousands of kilometers
Rifting makes oceans widen Continental plate 20mm/year Rising material
MOR Mid Oceanic Ridge *Rising limb of current breaks the Ocean crust * Basaltic eruption * Accumulation of lava - ridge-> PlatePlate MOR *New Oceanic crust **Divergent limb - expansion of ocean crust. Oceanic ridges are underwater mountain ranges that contain a rift down their center where magma seeps up, forming new oceanic crust.
PaleoMagnetism is the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials. Certain minerals in rocks lock-in a record of the direction and intensity of the magnetic field when they form. O This record provides information on the past behavior of Earth's magnetic field and the past location of tectonic plates.
TH AMER PLATE EURASIAN PLATE EURASIAN PLATE JUAN DE PLATE CARIBBEAN PHILIPPINE PLATE /PLATE ARABIAN PLATE cocos PLATE PLATE EGUATOR AFRICAN TE PACIFIC PLATE NAZCA PLATE AUSTRALI PLAT SOUTH AMERICAN PLATE AUST PLATE OTIA PLATE ANTARCTIC PLATE
Divergent Plate Boundary Ascending limb of convection current - can be below Ocean or Continent. PlatePlate If Below ocean -> formation of MOR If Below continent ->rift valley, nascent sea
Divergent Plate Boundary Continental crust Oceanic crust - MOR Divo Cont Rilting A Upwarping New rock added to eachside of the mid-ocean ridge Continental Crust Mogma B. Rift valley ormed C. inear Sea Mid ocean Ridge Molten material Oceanic crust Oceanic Crust
ETHIOPIA 150 3 0 4 SUDAN SOMALIA L. TURKANA UGANDA L ALBERT L KYOGA KENYA L VICTORIA L. TANGANYIKA TANZANIA D.R. CONGO L. M ALAWI / NYASSA MOZAMBIQUE ZAMBIA
Mediterranean Sea EGYPT SUDAN SOUTH SUDAN ETHIOPIA UGANDA Lake Victoria INDIAN OCEAN
IRAQ IRAN Prelims 2000 Which one of the following lakes form an international boundary between Tanzania and Uganda? a) Chad b) Malawi c) Victoria d) Zambezi Cairo LIBYA | EGYPT SAUDI A RA BIA CHAD SUDA/N ERITREA YEMEN Khartoum Grand Addis Ababa SOUTHMillennium Dam SUDAN) c. A. RN ETHIOPIA. UGANDA KENYA RWANDA BURUNDI INDIAN OCEAN 1,000 km ak Victoria TANZANIA
made of Continental volcanic arc Oceanic Crust Basalt. Trench Continental Crust Granite. Oceanic crust O So Oceanic crust is heavier and so it subducts under Continental Crust. And then it melts and then conversion of these Basalt rocks into Andesite and then it comes out via a explosive volcanoes. A volcanic mountain Chain will be formed on the Margin of that continental crust. ducting oceanic lit Continental lithosphere anic lithosphere t Metting Asthenosphere
O F Chait n Peru-Chile Trench and subduction Zone Pampas Andes Mountains (folded up) Aleutian trench Kurile trench e- Japan trench Izu Bonin trench South Atlantic Ocean-B Ryukyy trench Pacific Puerto Rico trench A Pacific Ocean Philippine emch Marianes trench Ocean widk America Nazca PlateBatholiths Batholths South American Plate form in interior Bougainville trench -Equaton trench Java (Sunda trench Peru-Chile trench Tonga trench Calbuco Volcano Convection Currents Drive the plates TOGETHER Mantle Why are the world's fold mountain systems located along the margins of continents? Bring out the association between global distribution of fold -mountains and earthquakes and volcanoes (10) Mains2014
C-C convergence Continental-Continental Boundary Diverging limbs on Convection Cell C-C conversion. Both are Continental plates so no one will subduct. Continental plates ka subduction nahi hota Contnental O If there is intense collision bcz of the 100 ln descending limb of the convection cell then One plate will climb over other plate but the plate jo niche hai wo kabhi subduct nahi hogi. Ab jab subduct nahi hogi toh melt nahi hogi and so NO Volcanism No Volcanic activity when C-C convergence. Oceanio plae 200 Volcanic mountain ranges of Continents On the margin O Sediments, soils, rocks whatever there in Non volcanic ranges like Himalaya on the b/w of Continents. on the convergence boundary, will be crushed and will rise and will form fold mountains. Eg. Himalayan mountains, Alps.
ARCTIC OCEAN Mountain Ranges of the World ASIA NORTH AMERICA EUROPE PACTFIC ATLANTIC 1. Arts OCEAN s OCEAN AFRICA PACIFTC OCEAN SOUTH AMERICA INDIAN OCEAN AUSTRALIA Great viding ATLANTIC OCEAN 1,000 2 ANTARCTICA
Importance of mountain building process Understanding of the origin and evolution of earth's crust. At the time of the formation of the earth crust, first basaltic crust of ocean - breaking and melting - a lighter continental crust developed Collide with one another a larger land mass. The joints - fold-mountains.
Fault-block mountains Block mountains Due to forces within interior of the earth graben horst.Uplifted part horst .Depressed part- Grabben Horst->block mountains . Grabben > rift valley HORST AND GRABEN
Mediserr ranean Sea Tibesti a Nubiarn Niger Guit of Hi Congo Co n itoriaIndian Ocean of Lake Tanganyik A t la nti Lake Malaw Plateau O c e a n Kalahari
Seattle L S uron %Plateen-1 Black Hills Mi n Detroit Boston Chioago York ral (Lowlands . San Franciscbz Arkansas Washington DC Plateau APP ed River Los C oast a Hou New Orleans ston Guif of Mexic o
Kaliosh TIBETA CHINA PLATEAU ung Tsang angtse BHUTAN rahmo BANGLADE BURMA (MYANMAR) VIETNAM BAY OF AOS BENGAL SOUTH CHINA SEA THAILAND VERS CAMBODIA TIBET Michoel Buckley ANDAMAN SEA A N
Geysers Geysers - fountains of Hot water . Ground water heated by shallow source of magma . Old faithful geyser, Yellow stone park, USA
Hot Spring Water reach deep enough heated by interior Locate any part of the world
Difference between geyser and HotSpring geyser *Geyser - Groundwater heated by hot spring shallow magma source *Hot spring - g/w heated by either magma source or heated rocks Geyser chamber in interior + pressure>comes out like fountain steam groundwater porou roc superheated water *Hot-spring - quite porous rock eat magma
B.Tech NIT Allahabad. Have written UPSC Mains 2 times with Physics. Channel "Sumant Kumar" on Youtube for Current Affairs Analysis.