Divergent Plate Boundary Ascending limb of convection current - can be below Ocean or Continent. PlatePlate If Below ocean -> formation of MOR If Below continent ->rift valley, nascent sea
Divergent Plate Boundary Continental crust Oceanic crust - MOR Divo Cont Rilting A Upwarping New rock added to eachside of the mid-ocean ridge Continental Crust Mogma B. Rift valley ormed C. inear Sea Mid ocean Ridge Molten material Oceanic crust Oceanic Crust
Phases of Divergent continental crust Rift valley Basalt oruptions Continental- crust Mantle Rift valley Seawat River Fault -.. .. blocks Continental shelf Rift valley Sea level
The Great African rift valley ARABIAN PLATE Nile River AFRICAN PLATE Nubian) Erta Ale Gulf of Aden INDIAN PLATE Exjuator AFRICAN PLATE Somalian) oldoinyo Lengai Lake Victori Tang. aW EXPLANATION Plate boundaries East African Rift Zone
ETHIOPIA 150 3 0 4 SUDAN SOMALIA L. TURKANA UGANDA L ALBERT L KYOGA KENYA L VICTORIA L. TANGANYIKA TANZANIA D.R. CONGO L. M ALAWI / NYASSA MOZAMBIQUE ZAMBIA
Mediterranean Sea EGYPT SUDAN SOUTH SUDAN ETHIOPIA UGANDA Lake Victoria INDIAN OCEAN
IRAQ IRAN Prelims 2000 Which one of the following lakes form an international boundary between Tanzania and Uganda? a) Chad b) Malawi c) Victoria d) Zambezi Cairo LIBYA | EGYPT SAUDI A RA BIA CHAD SUDA/N ERITREA YEMEN Khartoum Grand Addis Ababa SOUTHMillennium Dam SUDAN) c. A. RN ETHIOPIA. UGANDA KENYA RWANDA BURUNDI INDIAN OCEAN 1,000 km ak Victoria TANZANIA
Ocean-Ocean Convergence Oceanic-Oceanic Boundary crust 100 km 200 km O-O convergence : Heavier Oceanic plate will subduct under the lighter one and will melt. Melted basaltic rocks transforms into Andesitic(which is lighter than mantel elements(olivine) and crustal elements(basalt)) and so it will move upwards and will accumulate and form island chains(Volcanic Island Arcs)-> Andesitic Volcanism
hungking Ryukyu 4 Islands Henchow BONIN INDI CHINA ISLANDS ap. iwan Hano URM Br) Hong Kong (Br) FRENCEH unan IN CIINA SOUTH PACIFIC Sharri Thailand CHINA Lu PHILIPPINE OCEAN nruhn SEA Manilli Bangkok ISLANDS , ADAMAN SEA Bay Saigo GUL Palawar SIAM Mindanao o Caroline Palau Islands ota Bharu Jap.) (Br) dakan Mekgn MALAYA Lumpur Farakan (Br) Man Singapore Halmahera Sumatra endari Amb JAVA SEA Maka Oosthaten. Ne INDIAN Vet BANDA SEA va e FLORES SEA OCEAN aba limor ARAFURA SEA Christmas Island OKubang TIMOR SEA
made of Continental volcanic arc Oceanic Crust Basalt. Trench Continental Crust Granite. Oceanic crust O So Oceanic crust is heavier and so it subducts under Continental Crust. And then it melts and then conversion of these Basalt rocks into Andesite and then it comes out via a explosive volcanoes. A volcanic mountain Chain will be formed on the Margin of that continental crust. ducting oceanic lit Continental lithosphere anic lithosphere t Metting Asthenosphere
O F Chait n Peru-Chile Trench and subduction Zone Pampas Andes Mountains (folded up) Aleutian trench Kurile trench e- Japan trench Izu Bonin trench South Atlantic Ocean-B Ryukyy trench Pacific Puerto Rico trench A Pacific Ocean Philippine emch Marianes trench Ocean widk America Nazca PlateBatholiths Batholths South American Plate form in interior Bougainville trench -Equaton trench Java (Sunda trench Peru-Chile trench Tonga trench Calbuco Volcano Convection Currents Drive the plates TOGETHER Mantle Why are the world's fold mountain systems located along the margins of continents? Bring out the association between global distribution of fold -mountains and earthquakes and volcanoes (10) Mains2014
C-C convergence Continental-Continental Boundary Diverging limbs on Convection Cell C-C conversion. Both are Continental plates so no one will subduct. Continental plates ka subduction nahi hota Contnental O If there is intense collision bcz of the 100 ln descending limb of the convection cell then One plate will climb over other plate but the plate jo niche hai wo kabhi subduct nahi hogi. Ab jab subduct nahi hogi toh melt nahi hogi and so NO Volcanism No Volcanic activity when C-C convergence. Oceanio plae 200 Volcanic mountain ranges of Continents On the margin O Sediments, soils, rocks whatever there in Non volcanic ranges like Himalaya on the b/w of Continents. on the convergence boundary, will be crushed and will rise and will form fold mountains. Eg. Himalayan mountains, Alps.
ARCTIC OCEAN Mountain Ranges of the World ASIA NORTH AMERICA EUROPE PACTFIC ATLANTIC 1. Arts OCEAN s OCEAN AFRICA PACIFTC OCEAN SOUTH AMERICA INDIAN OCEAN AUSTRALIA Great viding ATLANTIC OCEAN 1,000 2 ANTARCTICA
Mediserr ranean Sea Tibesti a Nubiarn Niger Guit of Hi Congo Co n itoriaIndian Ocean of Lake Tanganyik A t la nti Lake Malaw Plateau O c e a n Kalahari
ARCTIC OCEAN ATLANTIC OCEANv ASIA A EUROPE Black Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea
Seattle L S uron %Plateen-1 Black Hills Mi n Detroit Boston Chioago York ral (Lowlands . San Franciscbz Arkansas Washington DC Plateau APP ed River Los C oast a Hou New Orleans ston Guif of Mexic o
Kaliosh TIBETA CHINA PLATEAU ung Tsang angtse BHUTAN rahmo BANGLADE BURMA (MYANMAR) VIETNAM BAY OF AOS BENGAL SOUTH CHINA SEA THAILAND VERS CAMBODIA TIBET Michoel Buckley ANDAMAN SEA A N
Basaltic eruption Andesitic eruption JOccur at mid-oceanic Volcanic arcs, volcanic mountains ridge and hot spot volcanism Basalt highly fluid- mobile JAndesite - less fluid less mobile Solidifies at short distance- intense pressure develop inside explosive Spread across easily Quite eruption
Geysers Geysers - fountains of Hot water . Ground water heated by shallow source of magma . Old faithful geyser, Yellow stone park, USA
Difference between geyser and HotSpring geyser *Geyser - Groundwater heated by hot spring shallow magma source *Hot spring - g/w heated by either magma source or heated rocks Geyser chamber in interior + pressure>comes out like fountain steam groundwater porou roc superheated water *Hot-spring - quite porous rock eat magma
Limitations of geo-thermal energy *Difficult to locate a good source of geothermal reservoir with current technology * Difficult to dig a deep well with hard and hot bedrock Harmful gases can escape from the earth interior while exploration - GHG gases and dissolved toxic elements.
How a tsunami occurs An earthquake- rocks the ocean floor 2 Displaces volume of water, pushing it up 3 Sets off an oscillation, which develops underwater at great speed 4Sea water is sucked back from the shore Waves get bigger as water gets shallower
B.Tech NIT Allahabad. Have written UPSC Mains 2 times with Physics. Channel "Sumant Kumar" on Youtube for Current Affairs Analysis.