GeoSystems North Africa EUROPE Black Sea MEDITERRANEAN ASIA Atiantic Ocean unisia Mediterranean Sea Canary Morocco Islands (Sp.) Algeria Libya Western Sahara (Mor.) Red Sea Egypt 00 CENTRAL EAST AFRICA WEST AFRICA 0 200 Kolometer
165 75 ASIA ARCTIC OCEAN GREENLAND (DENMARK) 15 "B e r i n g 80Sea 60 ALASKA (UNITED STATES 30 Anchorage Godthab 65* Juneau 45 -Hudson 45 Bay C A N A D A Edmonton " 150 Vancouver. Calgary Seattle Winnipeg be P A C I F I C OCEAN Portland Montr al Ottawa Toronto. Boston Salt Lake City San Francisco Chicago Detroit New York 30 Deiver St Louis, UNITED Memphis Denver St. Louls.o Washington D.C. Los Angeles, 30 San Diego .Phoenix STATES Atlanta ATLANTIC Tropic of Cancer Dallas. New Houston oreans Gulf of OCEAN Miami BAHAMAS 35 Monterrey North America Political Map MEXICO Mexico Havana oMexico City 7 REPUBLIC 15 CUBAJ Guadalajara AMAICA HAITPUERTO RICO15 o National capital Major city _Country boundary BELIZE Caribbean STATES) Acapulco HONDURAS Sea GUATEMA EL SALVADOR NICARAGUA 0 200 400 600 Miles SOUTH 0 300 600 900 Kilometers COST O Rand McNally & Co ICAPANAMA AMERICA 120 105 90 75
Taipei Hanoi BANGLADESH Haiphong Halong Bay AIWAN INDIA Lan Hong Kong MYANMAR LAOS Hainan Strait Bombay (Mumbai) Yangon han May ue Goa THAILAND Nang Manila Bangkok Andaman Islands i Nhon Mangalore Madras AMPUCHE Ko Kood Sihanoukville Trang PHILIPPIN VIETNANM ung Tau Ho Chi Minh City Cochin Similan Islands SRI LANKA Ko Samui Kota Kinabalu Phuket Langkawi Colombo ALAYSIA Muara Penang uantan Kuchi Strait of Mal cc Kuala Lumpur Sandakan Tioman Bitung Pulau Besar Island UNE Maldives Singapore Malacca BORNEO UMATRAN Palopo IndianOce an Krakatoa Volcano INDONESIA Ujung Pandang Jakarta JAVA Satonda Komodo Karimunjawa Semarang Bali Kupang
At trench Ocean floor destroyed - melted in mantle Oceanic crust heavier than continental crust *Ocean floor act like conveyor belt Ocean floor - cyclic process 300 ml years Mid-oceanic ridge Trench Ocean Subduction Continental ithosphere Oceanic lithosphere Cold Convection cell pwelling Hot Outer core Mantle Inner core
In which one of the following oceans the Diamantina Trench is located? a) Pacific Ocean b) Atlantic Ocean c) Indian Ocean d) Arctic Ocean Pacifle Ocean MARIANA TRENCH NORTH MARIANA ISLANDS DEEPEST , POINT PHILIPPINES AUSTRALIA
INDI OCEAN Google Maps AUSTRALIA DIAMANTINA TRENCH Perth 1,460 MILES
Palaeo-Magentism *Magnetism of rocks along MOR Magnetometer -Magnetic parallel stripes- normal and reverse magnetic profile * 1St Carlsberg ridge - Indian ocean Mid-oceanic ridge Oceanic crust Mantle
Molten lava get polarity geomagnetic field of that period-Solidify Ocean floor-magnetic tape Magma A. Period of normal magnetism Magma B. Period of reverse magnetismm Magma C. Period of normal magnetism
Convection cells = force behind drifting of continents Ridge Push Lithosphere Mantle Convection Cell Convection Cell Outer core Inner core
the Ocearn Floor Volcanic Island When volcanoes on the ocean floor erupt, they can create mountains so high that their peaks break the surface of the ocean. As the lava cools and hardens, an island forms Mid-Ocean ridge The mid-ocean ridge consists of many peaks along both sides of a central valley. This chain of undersea mountains runs all around the world. Continental slope A steady indine marks the continental slope. Continental slopes in the Pacific Ocean are Continental shelf This gradually sloping area width varies from just a few 1,300 kilometers from shore. borders each arth's oceans are thousands of kilometers wide. To show the width of the ocean floor in this illustration, the vertical and horizontal steeper than those in the Atlantic Ocean. Note: Because the kilmeters to as much as vertical scale is exaggerated, the continental slope in this illustration appears steeper than it realy is scales are not the same. The vertical scale, showing depth, has been stretched. The horizontal scale, showing distances, has been squeezed. Continental shelf Continental slope Mountains whose peaks do not break the surface of the ocean 6 water above them are E called seamounts Abyssal plain Thick layers of sediment, formed by the sunken remains of dead organisms from the surface cover these vast, flat plains These canyons in- clude the deepest spots on Earth. The Mariana Trench in the Pacific is 11 kilometers deep. Width of ocean: thousands of kilometers
Rifting makes oceans widen Continental plate 20mm/year Rising material
MOR Mid Oceanic Ridge *Rising limb of current breaks the Ocean crust * Basaltic eruption * Accumulation of lava - ridge-> PlatePlate MOR *New Oceanic crust **Divergent limb - expansion of ocean crust. Oceanic ridges are underwater mountain ranges that contain a rift down their center where magma seeps up, forming new oceanic crust.
Oceanic ridges are underwater mountain ranges that contain a rift down their center where magma seeps up, forming new oceanic crust. The rocks formed from this underwater volcanic activity were mainly basalt, which is an iron-rich, volcanic rock that makes up most of the ocean floor. Basalt contains magnetic minerals and as the rock is solidifying, these minerals align themselves in the direction of the magnetic field. This basically locks in a record of which way the magnetic field was positioned at the time that part of the ocean floor was created. Scientists took a look at the ocean floor going out away from oceanic ridges, they found magnetic stripes that were flipped so that one stripe would be normal polarity and the next reversed. Reason: these oceanic ridges were actually boundaries with tectonic plates pulling apart. This movement of the plates allowed the magma to rise up and harden into new rock. As the new rock was formed near the ridge, older rock, which formed millions of years ago when the magnetic field was reversed, got pushed farther away, resulting in this magnetic striping.
Location of rocks Example Property Mantle Olivine Highly fluid; Heaviest BasaltFluid; Heavy Andesite Less mobile; Lighter Granite Least mobile; Lightest Oceanic crust Continental crust Continental crust
Divergent Plate Boundary Ascending limb of convection current - can be below Ocean or Continent. PlatePlate If Below ocean -> formation of MOR If Below continent ->rift valley, nascent sea
The Great African rift valley ARABIAN PLATE Nile River AFRICAN PLATE Nubian) Erta Ale Gulf of Aden INDIAN PLATE Exjuator AFRICAN PLATE Somalian) oldoinyo Lengai Lake Victori Tang. aW EXPLANATION Plate boundaries East African Rift Zone
ETHIOPIA 150 3 0 4 SUDAN SOMALIA L. TURKANA UGANDA L ALBERT L KYOGA KENYA L VICTORIA L. TANGANYIKA TANZANIA D.R. CONGO L. M ALAWI / NYASSA MOZAMBIQUE ZAMBIA
Mediterranean Sea EGYPT SUDAN SOUTH SUDAN ETHIOPIA UGANDA Lake Victoria INDIAN OCEAN
hungking Ryukyu 4 Islands Henchow BONIN INDI CHINA ISLANDS ap. iwan Hano URM Br) Hong Kong (Br) FRENCEH unan IN CIINA SOUTH PACIFIC Sharri Thailand CHINA Lu PHILIPPINE OCEAN nruhn SEA Manilli Bangkok ISLANDS , ADAMAN SEA Bay Saigo GUL Palawar SIAM Mindanao o Caroline Palau Islands ota Bharu Jap.) (Br) dakan Mekgn MALAYA Lumpur Farakan (Br) Man Singapore Halmahera Sumatra endari Amb JAVA SEA Maka Oosthaten. Ne INDIAN Vet BANDA SEA va e FLORES SEA OCEAN aba limor ARAFURA SEA Christmas Island OKubang TIMOR SEA
made of Continental volcanic arc Oceanic Crust Basalt. Trench Continental Crust Granite. Oceanic crust O So Oceanic crust is heavier and so it subducts under Continental Crust. And then it melts and then conversion of these Basalt rocks into Andesite and then it comes out via a explosive volcanoes. A volcanic mountain Chain will be formed on the Margin of that continental crust. ducting oceanic lit Continental lithosphere anic lithosphere t Metting Asthenosphere
O F Chait n Peru-Chile Trench and subduction Zone Pampas Andes Mountains (folded up) Aleutian trench Kurile trench e- Japan trench Izu Bonin trench South Atlantic Ocean-B Ryukyy trench Pacific Puerto Rico trench A Pacific Ocean Philippine emch Marianes trench Ocean widk America Nazca PlateBatholiths Batholths South American Plate form in interior Bougainville trench -Equaton trench Java (Sunda trench Peru-Chile trench Tonga trench Calbuco Volcano Convection Currents Drive the plates TOGETHER Mantle Why are the world's fold mountain systems located along the margins of continents? Bring out the association between global distribution of fold -mountains and earthquakes and volcanoes (10) Mains2014
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ARCTIC OCEAN Mountain Ranges of the World ASIA NORTH AMERICA EUROPE PACTFIC ATLANTIC 1. Arts OCEAN s OCEAN AFRICA PACIFTC OCEAN SOUTH AMERICA INDIAN OCEAN AUSTRALIA Great viding ATLANTIC OCEAN 1,000 2 ANTARCTICA
Importance of mountain building process Understanding of the origin and evolution of earth's crust. At the time of the formation of the earth crust, first basaltic crust of ocean - breaking and melting - a lighter continental crust developed Collide with one another a larger land mass. The joints - fold-mountains.
Fault-block mountains Block mountains Due to forces within interior of the earth graben horst.Uplifted part horst .Depressed part- Grabben Horst->block mountains . Grabben > rift valley HORST AND GRABEN
ARCTIC OCEAN ATLANTIC OCEANv ASIA A EUROPE Black Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea
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Shield/ dome Cinder Highly fluid ss fluid /highly F Silent flovw Gentle slope Steep slope Composite Fluid viscous viscous Violent eruption Multiple and violent eruption Highest volcanoes Small volcanoes Small volcanoes Large volcanoes
Geysers Geysers - fountains of Hot water . Ground water heated by shallow source of magma . Old faithful geyser, Yellow stone park, USA
Hot Spring Water reach deep enough heated by interior Locate any part of the world
How a tsunami occurs An earthquake- rocks the ocean floor 2 Displaces volume of water, pushing it up 3 Sets off an oscillation, which develops underwater at great speed 4Sea water is sucked back from the shore Waves get bigger as water gets shallower
B.Tech NIT Allahabad. Have written UPSC Mains 2 times with Physics. Channel "Sumant Kumar" on Youtube for Current Affairs Analysis.