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UNIFICATION OF ITALY REVOLUTION OF 1848 (2) BY NANDINI MAHARAJ
Contents Republican Movement in Rome .Failure of 1848 Revolutions .Significance of 1848 Revolutions
Republican movement in Rome After the Pope fled in 1849, patriots arrived in Rome led by Giuseppe Garibaldi Elections 1849 for a Constituent Assembly The Assembly proclaimed a Roman Republic Appoint Mazzini the Chief Minister Granted religious freedom, free public education .Abolished death penalty .Gave church's large landholdings to the poor Prison and insane asylum reforms Did not give right to work Garibaldi and Mazzini tried to build a 'Rome of the People' .Tuscany followed Rome's example .Fall of Rome: -Inflation
They had sent troops to defend Piedmont-Sardinia and thus faced threat from Austria Pope appealed to the French army -French and Austrians combined to defeat the Roman republic The pope was escorted back He ruled under French protection until 1870 Absolutism was restored in all the states except Piedmont where Victor Emanuel II remained loyal to the Constitution
The 1848 revolutions failed because .Their aims were confused Some wanted a federation, some a presidency under the pope, and some a union of Italy under the house of Savoy .Issues were localised rather than nationalised There was no real leadership Possible leaders: Pope, Mazzini, Charles Albert None were acceptable to all -Charles and Mazzini were defeated .Pope moved away from the national movement after Rossi's murder Declared that the papacy did to support war against Austria or a united Italy Austrian and French interventions .Lack of involvement from the masses
Significance of 1848 revolutions: .Shook off narrow provincialism Build a common cause for a united Italy Piedmont-Sardinia realised the importance of allies against Austria Build relationships with France and Prussia Victor Emmanuel emerged as the leader Republicans under Mazzini were discredited so a clear path for Italian unification emerged: a Constitutional Kingdom under the King of Sardinia- Piedmont.
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